Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology (VCOT) Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology (VCOT) vcot de-de Fri, 19 Jan 18 00:27:25 +0100 Thirty Years of VCOT Publication and Still Evolving Kenneth A. Johnson (1) 28127 2017-11-27 18:06:20 Antibiotic Awareness Week - November 2017 Veterinary Surgeons – Leaders in Antimicrobial... Stephen W. Page (1) 28126 2017-11-27 18:02:02 OutcomeofRepairofDistalRadialandUlnar Fractures in Dogs Weighing 4 kg or Less Using a 1.5-mm Locking... Objectives Retrospective evaluation of repairing distal radial and ulnar fractures in small breed dogs with the Synthes 1.5-mm locking Adaption plate system and compare results in a similar group of patients repaired with the Synthes 2.0-mm limited contact-dynamic compression plate (LC-DCP). Methods Electronic medical records from one specialty referral centre were reviewed from March 21, 2010, to October 9, 2015, for patients weighing less than or equal to 4 kg that had a distal one-third radial and ulnar fracture repaired with a Synthes 1.5-mm locking adaption plate or Synthes 2.0-mm LC-DCP. Further inclusion criteria included application of the plate to the cranial surface of the radius via open reduction and internal fixation. Results Six 1.5-mm Adaption plates and 7 2.0-mm LC-DCPs were used to repair 13 distal radial and ulnar fractures in 12 dogs. There were three major complications in the 1.5-mm adaption plate group (one plate fracture, one screw pull-out and one fracture through a distal screw hole) and one major complication in the 2.0-mm LC-DCP group due to a re-fracture. All patients without a complication had good or excellent functional outcome. Clinical Significance The authors recommend that the 1.5-mm Adaption plate be used only when a 2.0-mm LC-DCP would not allow for a minimum of two screws in the distal segment and at the discretion of the surgeon.... THomas A. Nelson (1), Adam Strom (1) 28125 2017-11-27 17:18:54 Computed Tomographic Analysis of Ventral Atlantoaxial Optimal Safe Implantation Corridors in 27 Dogs Objectives Ventral atlantoaxial stabilization techniques are challenging surgical procedures in dogs. Available surgical guidelines are based upon subjective anatomical landmarks, and limited radiographic and computed tomographic data. The aims of this study were (1) to provide detailed anatomical descriptions of atlantoaxial optimal safe implantation corridors to generate objective recommendations for optimal implant placements and (2) to compare anatomical data obtained in non-affected Toy breed dogs, affected Toy breed dogs suffering from atlantoaxial instability and non-affected Beagle dogs. Methods Anatomical data were collected from a prospectively recruited population of 27 dogs using a previously validated method of optimal safe implantation corridor analysis using computed tomographic images. Results Optimal implant positions and three-dimensional numerical data were generated successfully in all cases. Anatomical landmarks could be used to generate objective definitions of optimal insertion points which were applicable across all three groups. Overall the geometrical distribution of all implant sites was similar in all three groups with a few exceptions. Clinical Significance This study provides extensive anatomical data available to facilitate surgical planning of implant placement for atlantoaxial stabilization. Our data suggest that non-affected Toy breed dogs and non-affected Beagle dogs constitute reasonable research models to study atlantoaxial stabilization constructs.... Guillaume Leblond (1), Luis Gaitero (1), Noel M. M. Moens (1), Alex zur Linden (1), Fiona M. K. James (1), Gabrielle J. Monteith (1), John Runciman (2) 28084 2017-10-24 18:39:35 Effect of Limb Position at the Time of Skin Marker Application on Sagittal Plane Kinematics of the... Objectives To evaluate the effect of limb position during initial skin marker application on sagittal plane kinematics of the hindlimb. Methods Six healthy dogs (20–30 kg) were evaluated. An established two-dimensional kinematicmodel of the pelvic limb was utilized to describe sagittal plane motion. Kinematic markers were applied separately for each dog while standing in three different positions: (1) the limb extended cranially, (2) a normal standing limb position and (3) the limb extended caudally. Following marker application at each of the three positions, dynamic gait was recorded at a walk (velocity, 0.9–1.2 m/s; acceleration, 0.5m/s2). Five valid trials were used for comparison. Complete waveform analysis was performedwith generalized indicator function analysis (GIFA).Maximum andminimum joint angles and joint range of motion were compared with a one-way repeated measures ANOVA with significance at p < 0.05. Results Significant differences were found between stifle waveforms. No differences were found between the hip or tarsus waveforms. Minimum and maximumjoint angles were significantly different for the hip and stifle but not for the tarsus. No differences were found between ranges of motion for any joint evaluated. Clinical Significance Limb position at the time of skin marker application affects gait data and is an important consideration for kinematic analysis of the hindlimb in dogs.... Sun-Young Kim (1), Bryan T. Torres  (2), Gabriella S. Sandberg (3), Steven C. Budsberg (3) 28083 2017-10-24 18:33:52 Evaluation of Intra- and Inter-observer Measurement Variability of a Radiographic Stifle... Objectives To evaluate the intra- and inter-observer measurement variability of an existing osteoarthritis (OA) stifle scoring system. Methods Paired caudocranial and mediolateral canine stifle radiographs were selected randomly. A total of 15 assessment points were evaluated independently and graded twice (integer numeric scale: 1–4) at an interval of 2 weeks by three observers with different levels of experience. The grades for each of the 15 factors were summed to obtain the OA score for each patient. Results The 15 independent assessment points measured by the three observers showed high reproducibility and low intra-observer variability. Inter-observer variability was also low (mean: 1.09  4.99, 95% CI [confidence interval]: –0.35 to 2.55). The most discordant ratings among the three observers involved sesamoid bones of gastrocnemius muscle (assessment point 11 of 15) and popliteal surface of femur (assessment point 10 of 15). Clinical Significance A validated and feasible OA scoring method is prerequisite for reliable radiographic assessment of OA progression. The low overall inter- and intraobserver variabilities among the 15 independent measures of the OA scoring system presented herein support its feasibility for application in clinical practice as an objective tool for radiographic scoring of stifle OA.... Marlis Wessely (1), Andreas Brühschwein (2), Eva Schnabl-Feichter (1) 28082 2017-10-24 18:27:02 Effect of Facetectomy on the Three-Dimensional Biomechanical Properties of the Fourth Canine... Objective To study the biomechanical effect of facetectomy in 10 large breed dogs (>24 kg body weight) on the fourth canine cervical functional spinal unit. Methods Canine cervical spines were freed fromallmuscles. Spines weremounted on a six-degrees-of-freedom spine testing machine for three-dimensional motion analysis. Data were recorded with an optoelectronic motion analysis system. The range of motion was determined in all three primary motions as well as range of motion of coupled motions on the intact specimen, after unilateral and after bilateral facetectomy. Repeated-measures analysis of variance models were used to assess the changes of the biomechanical properties in the three treatment groups considered. Results Facetectomy increased range of motion of primary motions in all directions. Axial rotation was significantly influenced by facetectomy. Coupled motion was not influenced by facetectomy except for lateral bending with coupled motion axial rotation. The coupling factor (coupled motion/primary motion) decreased after facetectomy. Symmetry ofmotion was influenced by facetectomy in flexion–extension and axial rotation, but not in lateral bending. Clinical Significance Facet joints play a significant role in the stability of the cervical spine and act to maintain spatial integrity. Therefore, cervical spinal treatments requiring a facetectomy should be carefully planned and if an excessive increase in range of motion is expected, complications should be anticipated and reduced via spinal stabilization.... Nadja Bösch (1), Martin Hofstetter (2), Alexander Bürki (3), Beatriz Vidondo (4), Fenella Davies (1),Franck Forterre (1) 28081 2017-10-24 18:22:46 Evaluation of the Environmental Bias on Accelerometer-Measured Total Daily Activity Counts and Owner... Objective To determine if environmental variables affect the average daily activity counts (AC) of dogs with osteoarthritis (OA) and/or owners’ perception of their dog’s clinical signs or quality of life. Methods The AC and Canine Brief Pain Inventory (CBPI) owner questionnaires of 62 dogs with OA were comparedwith dailyenvironmental variables includingthe following: average temperature (°C), high temperature (°C), low temperature (°C), relative humidity (%), total precipitation (mm), average barometric pressure (hPa) and total daylight hours. Results Daily AC significantly correlated with average temperature and total daylight hours, but average temperature and total daylight hours accounted for less than 1% of variation in AC. No other significant relationships were found between daily AC and daily high temperature, low temperature, relative humidity, total precipitation or average barometric pressure. No statistical relationship was found between daily AC and the CBPI, nor between environmental variables and the CBPI. Canine Brief Pain Inventory scores for pain severity and pain interference decreased significantly over the test period. Clinical Significance The relationship between daily AC and average temperature and total daylight hours was significant, but unlikely to be clinically significant. Thus, environmental variables do not appear to have a clinically relevant bias on AC or owner CBPI questionnaires. The decrease over time in CBPI pain severity and pain interference values suggests owners completing the CBPI in this study were influenced by a caregiver placebo effect.... Erin M. Katz (1), Ruth M. Scott (2), Christopher B. Thomson (2), Eileen Mesa (2), Richard Evans (2),Michael G. Conzemius (2) 28080 2017-10-24 18:16:17 Variation in the Quantity of Elastic Fibres with Degeneration in Canine Cranial Cruciate Ligaments... Objectives This study aims to quantify numbers of elastic fibres in cranial cruciate ligaments from a dog breed at high risk of cranial cruciate ligament disease. Methods Macroscopically normal cranial cruciate ligaments were harvested from six Labrador retrievers. Sequential histological sections were assessed for extracellular matrix degeneration (haematoxylin and eosin stain) and elastic fibre staining (Miller’s stain). Elastic fibres were semi-quantified using previously published scoring systems. Each section was scored twice by two observers. Results Increased numbers of elastic fibres were seen with increasing cranial cruciate ligament degeneration (p ¼ 0.001). Labrador retriever cranial cruciate ligaments had lower elastic fibre staining when compared with previous published findings in the racing greyhound. Clinical Significance The cranial cruciate ligaments from a dog breed at high risk of cranial cruciate ligament disease vary in the quantity of elastic fibres in association with ligament degeneration. Breed variation in the quantity of elastic fibres may reflect differing risk of cranial cruciate ligament disease.... Kinley D. Smith (1), Kei Hayashi (4), Dylan N. Clements (3), Peter D. Clegg (2), John F. Innes (5),Eithne J. Comerford (2) 28079 2017-10-24 18:10:35 Locking T-Plate Repair of Ilial Fractures in Cats and Small Dogs Objectives To assess screw loosening and pelvic narrowing following the use of locking implants to stabilise ilial body fractures in cats and small dogs. Methods Review of clinical records and post operative and follow up radiography of 12 cats and five small dogs to evaluate accuracy of fracture reduction, screw purchase and subsequent screw loosening and reduction in pelvic diameter. Results No screw loosening or reduction in pelvic diameter was observed at follow up. Clinical Significance Locking T-platesmay prevent complications reported following the use of conventional implant systems for the repair of ilial fractures in cats and small dogs. Andrew B. Scrimgeour (1), Andrew Craig (2), Philip G. Witte (2) 28078 2017-10-24 18:04:25 Assessment of T2 Relaxation Times for Normal Canine Knee Articular Cartilage by T2 Mapping Using... Objectives This study aims to assess and compare the T2 relaxation times for articular cartilage of normal canine stifle joints in four regions by T2 mapping using a 1.5-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods In vivo prospective study: 20 hindlimbs (left and right) from 10 normal healthy beagle dogs (n ¼ 20). The region of interest (ROI) was subdivided into medial and lateral condyles of femoral cartilage (MF and LF, respectively) and medial and lateral condyles of tibial cartilage (MT and LT, respectively). The T2 relaxation times were assessed in regions where the cartilage thickness was greater than 0.5 mm. TResults he median maximum cartilage thickness (mm) of the four ROI were 0.7 (range: 0.9–0.6), 0.6 (range: 0.7–0.5), 0.7 (range: 0.9–0.5) and 0.6 (range: 0.8–0.5) at MF, LF, MT and LT, respectively. The errors in themeasurement (%) of the four ROI were 64.3 (range: 50.0–75.0), 75.0 (range: 64.3–90.0), 64.3 (range: 20.0–90.0) and 75.0 (range: 56.3–90.0) at MF, LF, MT and LT, respectively. The median T2 relaxation times (ms) for the articular cartilage of the four ROI were 70.2 (range: 57.9–87.9), 57.5 (range: 46.8–66.9), 65.0 (range: 52.0–92.0) and 57.0 (range: 49.0–66.2) at MF, LF, MT and LT, respectively. The inter-observer correlation coefficient (ICC, 2.1) for the T2 relaxation times of MF was 0.644. Clinical Significance This study offers useful information on T2 relaxation times for articular cartilage of the stifle joint using a 1.5-T MRI in normal dogs.... Asami Matsui (1), Miki Shimizu (1), Brian Beale (2), Fumitaka Takahashi (3), Sinya Yamaguchi (3) 28077 2017-10-24 18:00:54 Incidence of Abnormalities of the Second and Third Cervical Vertebral Junction in Dogs with... Objective To evaluate the occurrence and frequency of abnormalities at the second and third cervical vertebral junction (C2/3) in dogs with and without atlantoaxial instability (AAI). Study Design Retrospective multi-institutional case-controlled case series. Animals One hundred and seventeen dogs with AAI and 117 dogs without AAI. Methods Radiographs, together with computer tomographic images or magnetic resonance images or both, of the cranial cervical spine of dogs were reviewed for the presence or absence of intervertebral disc–related anomalies, osseous fusion of the vertebrae, spondylosis, or any other anomaly of the C2/3. Results The incidence of anomalies affecting the C2/3 in dogs with AAI was 38.46% (n ¼ 45) and in the control group it was 11.97% (n ¼ 14). The majority of the observed anomalies involved the intervertebral disc. In conjunction with AAI, intervertebral disc– related anomalies were noted in 33.34%, spondylosis in 2.56%, osseous fusion in 1.71% and a hypoplasia of the spinous process in 0.85% of the cases. Summarized under the term intervertebral disc–related anomalies, a morphological alteration of the intervertebral disc was noted in 10 cases with AAI, characterized by a spherical outer shape and a minimally reduced size and a dorsal positioning in the intervertebral space. Conclusion There is a significantly higher incidence of anomalies affecting the C2/3 in associationwith AAI. In conjunctionwith AAI, intervertebral disc–related anomalies are the most frequent pathological finding affecting the C2/3.... M. Schneider (1), M. Waschk1 M. C. Precht (1), C. Nathues (2),  P. Moissonnier (3), T. Aikawa (4), D. Schnötzinger (5), M. Schmidt (6), D. Garosi (7), F. Forterre1 28076 2017-10-24 17:55:48 Quantitative Analysis and Development of the Fore Feet of Arabian Foals from Birth to 1 Year of Age Objectives The goal of this study was to quantify external and internal anatomical characteristics of the foal foot throughout the first year of age. Methods Digital radiographs and photographs were taken bimonthly of the forefeet of nine Arabian foals, beginning at about 2 weeks of age until 12 months of age. Sixtyeight linear and angular variables were measured using NIH (National Institutes of Health) Image J software. Statistical analyses were performed using piecewise random coefficient model and p-values < 0.05 were considered significant. Results Distinct changes in hoof development were identified between 4 and 8 months of age. Distinct changes were identified in several external (conformational) measurements including hoof solar widths and lengths, palmar heel lengths, toe and heel angles and in several internal (radiographic) measurements including the widths and lengths of the phalanges and sesamoid bones as well as joint angles. Clinical Significance Existing knowledge of distal limb development in foals, particularly the foot, is limited. These findings define the measurable changes of the foal foot as it grows during the first year of life. These data provide an insight into the transformation of the hoof from its initial oval to a circular shape and from a club-like, cylindrical conformation to a more angled, conical conformation. This paper quantifies this development, ultimately allowing a better understanding of morphological changes in the foot of the growing foal.... Babak Faramarzi (1), Allison Salinger (1), Andris Kaneps (2), Yvette Nout-Lomas (3), Holly Greene (4), Fanglong Dong (5) 28075 2017-10-24 17:45:14 Laura Lenz, Managing Editor of VCOT Fond farewell and the best wishes for the future Laura Lenz, Managing Editor of VCOT Fond farewell and the best wishes for the future. K. Johnson 27926 2017-09-13 11:10:25 Efficacy of an oral nutraceutical for the treatment of canine osteoarthritis Objectives: To assess the safety and efficacy of an orally administered nutraceutical (Glu/CS+; + for additional ingredient) for the treatment of clinical osteoarthritis (OA) in dogs. Methods: In this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial, client-owned dogs with clinical signs of OA in one or more joints were assigned to a Glu/CS+ (n = 30) or placebo (n = 30) group. Dogs were administered Glu/CS+ or placebo orally and wore an activity monitor (AM) continuously throughout a 97 day study period. Prior to the initiation of the treatment, seven days of baseline activity was collected. On days –7, 30, 60 and 90 of the study, owners completed a patient assessment form (Canine Brief Pain Inventory). Data between groups were compared. Results: No serious adverse events were reported. No difference was found between groups when evaluating daily activity counts during the seven-day pre-treatment period and the 90-day treatment period. Owner assessment (pain interference and pain severity scores) improved over the 90-day treatment period for both groups, however no difference was found between treatment groups. Conclusions: Treatment with oral Glu/CS+ for a 90 day treatment period when compared to placebo treatment did not result in a significant increase in activity counts in dogs with clinical OA. However, owner assessment scores similarly improved throughout the study period for dogs in both groups, suggesting a caregiver placebo effect in this outcome measure.... R. M. Scott (1), R. Evans (2), M. G. Conzemius (1) 27780 2017-08-01 17:40:46 The influence of aluminium, steel and polyurethane shoeing systems and of the unshod hoof on the... Objectives: To evaluate the damage inflicted by an unshod hoof and by the various horseshoe materials (steel, aluminium and polyurethane) on the long bones of horses after a simulated kick. Methods: Sixty-four equine radii and tibiae were evaluated using a drop impact test setup. An impactor with a steel, aluminium, polyurethane, or hoof horn head was dropped onto prepared bones. An impactor velocity of 8 m/s was initially used with all four materials and then testing was repeated with a velocity of 12 m/s with the polyurethane and hoof horn heads. The impact process was analysed using a high-speed camera, and physical parameters, including peak contact force and impact duration, were calculated. Results: At 8 m/s, the probability of a fracture was 75% for steel and 81% for aluminium, whereas polyurethane and hoof horn did not damage the bones. At 12 m/s, the probability of a fracture was 25% for polyurethane and 12.5% for hoof horn. The peak contact force and impact duration differed significantly between ‘hard materials’ (aluminium and steel) and ‘soft materials’ (polyurethane and hoof horn). Clinical significance: The observed bone injuries were similar to those seen in analogous experimental studies carried out previously and comparable to clinical fracture cases suggesting that the simulated kick was realistic. The probability of fracture was significantly higher for steel and aluminium than for polyurethane and hoof horn, which suggests that the horseshoe material has a significant influence on the risk of injury for humans or horses kicked by a horse.... M. Sprick (1), A. Fürst (1), F. Baschnagel (2), S. Michel (2), G. Piskoty (2), S. Hartnack (3), M. A. Jackson (1) 27779 2017-08-01 17:26:25 Prevalence, treatment and outcome of patellar luxation in dogs in Italy Objective: To determine the prevalence of patellar luxation in dogs in Italy and its relation to signalment, the frequency and the type of postoperative complications and the outcome of treatment, and to compare the findings with those of other studies. Materials and methods: The medical records from four referral clinics were searched for dogs with orthopaedic disorders referred from 2009 to 2014. From these data, the records of dogs with patellar luxation were identified, and the signalment, age and body weight, grade, side and direction of patellar luxation, treatment, postoperative complications, and outcome were retrieved. Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were used to evaluate the data. Results: Of 8,694 canine orthopaedic cases, fractures not included, patellar luxation was diagnosed in 559 dogs (801 stifles). Mixed breed dogs were most commonly affected (18%), 85% of the luxations were medial, and 52% of the dogs were female. Of the 559 dogs examined, 400 (574 stifles) met the inclusion criteria for treatment evaluation. Minor complications occurred in five percent of the dogs, and major complications in 16%, including recurrence of patellar luxation in seven percent of the dogs. The outcome was good in 88% of stifles, fair in two percent, and poor in 10%. Clinical significance: Although patellar luxation was more common in small breed dogs, it also was diagnosed in a significant number of large breed dogs, which included medial patellar luxation in 73% and lateral patellar luxation in 27% of stifles. Body weight and grade of luxation were the only variables statistically correlated with surgical complications.... F. Bosio (1), A. Bufalari (2), B. Peirone (3), M. Petazzoni (4), A. Vezzoni (5) 27778 2017-08-01 17:21:19 2017 VOS Abstracts 27744 2017-07-24 13:56:38 Ahead of print: Erratum to: Computed tomographic evaluation of femoral and tibial conformation in... 27717 2017-07-10 17:19:26 Percutaneous tibial physeal fracture repair in small animals: technique and 17 cases Objectives: To retrospectively describe cases treated via percutaneous tibial physeal fracture repair (PTPFR), using intra-operative fluoroscopy (IFL) or digital radiography (DR). To describe a technique (“spiking”), used to treat tibial tuberosity avulsion fractures. Methods: Clinical data of 14 dogs and three cats were included. The “spiking” technique was described. Results: Intra-operative fluoroscopy (n = 11) and DR (n = 6) were successfully used in 11 tibial tuberosity avulsion fractures, one combined proximal physeal and tibial tuberosity avulsion fracture, and five distal tibial/fibular physeal fractures. Surgery times ranged from eight to 54 minutes. The “spiking” technique was successfully applied in six tibial tuberosity avulsion fracture cases. Return to function was at a mean (± standard deviation) of 1.9 (± 1.6) weeks. Long-term (>12 months; n = 17) follow-up was available at a mean of 40.6 (± 13.4) months. Major complications consisted of skin irritation from a pin (distal tibia / fibula physeal fracture case; 8 weeks post-PTPFR), and a bilateral grade II medial patella luxation (tibial tuberosity avulsion fracture case; 1.5 years post-PTPFR). One case developed a mild tibial tuberosity avulsion fracture re-avulsion. All conditions in these three cases were not of clinical concern at follow-up and final outcome was graded as good in these and excellent in the other 14 cases. Clinical significance: Percutaneous tibial physeal fracture repair can be considered as a technique to treat tibial physeal fractures. The “spiking” technique was successfully applied in six dogs. A larger, prospective case series is indicated to provide additional clinical information.... D. J. F. von Pfeil (1, 2), M. Glassman (1), M. Ropski (1) 27682 2017-06-21 11:52:07 A structural numerical model for the optimization of double pelvic osteotomy in the early treatment... Background: Double pelvic osteotomy (DPO) planning is usually performed by hip palpation, and on radiographic images which give a poor representation of the complex three-dimensional manoeuvre required during surgery. Furthermore, bone strains which play a crucial role cannot be foreseen. Objective: To support surgeons and designers with biomechanical guidelines through a virtual model that would provide bone stress and strain, required moments, and three-dimensional measurements. Methods: A multibody numerical model for kinematic analyses has been coupled to a finite element model for stress/strain analysis on deformable bodies. The model was parametrized by the fixation plate angle, the iliac osteotomy angle, and the plate offset in ventro-dorsal direction. Model outputs were: acetabular ventro-version (VV) and lateralization (L), Norberg (NA) and dorsal acetabular rim (DAR) angles, the percentage of acetabular coverage (PC), the peak bone stress, and moments required to deform the pelvis. Results: Over 150 combinations of cited parameters and their respective outcome were analysed. Curves reporting NA and PC versus VV were traced for the given patient. The optimal VV range in relation to NA and PC limits was established. The 25° DPO plate results were the most similar to 20° TPO. The output L grew for positive iliac osteotomy inclinations. The 15° DPO plate was critical in relation to DAR, while very large VV could lead to bone failure. Clinical significance: Structural models can be a support to the study and optimization of DPO as they allow for foreseeing geometrical and structural outcomes of surgical choices.... E. Zanetti (1), M. Terzini (2), L. Mossa (2), C. Bignardi (2), P. Costa (3), A. L. Audenino (2), A. Vezzoni (4) 27673 2017-06-20 16:42:27 Symmetrical brachydactyly in a dog Congenital malformations of the canine manus and pes are infrequently reported in the veterinary literature. This includes brachydactyly which is a general term used to indicate the shortening of digits due to abnormal development of the phalanges, metacarpals, or metatarsals. This case report describes isolated brachydactyly in a one-year-old male Maremma Sheepdog affecting all of the phalanges, metacarpals, and metatarsals of digits two through five. This condition was confirmed by determining the length of each phalanx, metacarpal, and metatarsal of the affected dog as well as an unaffected littermate. The affected dog’s metacarpal, metatarsal, and phalanx lengths ranged from 50% to 77% of that of the unaffected sibling. Other abnormalities found on physical examination as well as on radiographic imaging are discussed. M. T. Cray (1), U. Krotscheck (2), A. J. Fischetti (1), K. Tong (1) 27672 2017-06-20 16:41:46 Comparison of complications following tibial tuberosity advancement and tibial plateau levelling... Objectives: To analyse and compare major complications in dogs ≥50 kg undergoing tibial tuberosity advancement (TTA) or tibial plateau levelling osteotomy (TPLO) for treatment of cranial cruciate ligament disease. Methods: Medical records and radiographs of client-owned dogs (≥50 kg) treated for cranial cruciate ligament disease with either TTA or TPLO between January 2011 and November 2015 were reviewed. Ninety-one TTA cases and 54 TPLO cases met the study inclusion criteria. All complications within one year of surgery were recorded. Major complications were those requiring surgical revision or intervening medical therapy to resolve. Logistic regression analysis evaluated for associations with major complication occurrence. Major complications were statistically compared between TTA and TPLO treatment groups. Results: Incidence of major complications following TTA and TPLO surgery were 19.8% and 27.8%, respectively. Surgical site infection (SSI) was the single most common major complication following both TTA (15.4%) and TPLO (25.9%) surgery. There were no significant differences between TTA and TPLO treatment regarding the rate of SSI, surgical revision, or overall occurrence of major complications. Postoperative antibiotic therapy significantly reduced the risk of a major complication in all dogs ≥50 kg (p = 0.015; OR: 0.201: 95%CI: 0.055–0.737). Clinical significance: Major complications occurred frequently following TTA and TPLO treatment of cranial cruciate ligament disease in dogs ≥50 kg. The increased chance for SSI should be considered and postoperative antibiotic therapy is recommended.... E. C. Hans (1), M. D. Barnhart (1), S. C. Kennedy (1), S. J. Naber (2) 27671 2017-06-20 16:38:07 Guidelines for surgical approaches for minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis in cats Objectives: Minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis (MIPO) is one of the most recent fixation techniques that embody the concept of biological osteosynthesis. Several studies evaluating MIPO in dogs have been published in the recent years. However, there are few clinical reports of MIPO in cats and no description of the surgical approaches. The purpose of our study was to describe the safe corridors for plate insertion in cats using the MIPO technique. Methods: The surgical approaches for the humerus, radius-ulna, femur and tibia were developed after reviewing the described techniques and surgical approaches for MIPO in dogs, while considering any relevant anatomical difference between dogs and cats. Following the MIPO approaches, the limbs were anatomically dissected and the relationship between proximal and distal positions of the implants and neurovascular structures was noted. Results: The surgical approaches developed for the humerus and radius-ulna differed from what had been reported previously, because relevant anatomical differences were found between dogs and cats. Anatomical landmarks for safe plate application were described for all the major long bones in cats. No damage to vital structures following plate insertion was detected in the dissection. Clinical significance: In this cadaveric study, we evaluated the safety of the surgical approaches for MIPO in cats. By respecting the anatomical landmarks described in this report, damage to the neurovascular structures can be avoided performing the MIPO technique in cats.... P. A. Schmierer (1), A. Pozzi (1) 27670 2017-06-20 16:35:27 Impact of femoral varus on complications and outcome associated with corrective surgery for medial... Objectives: To evaluate the association of femoral varus with postoperative complications and outcome following standard corrective surgery for medial patellar luxation (MPL) without distal femoral osteotomy (DFO) in dogs. Methods: In a retrospective study spanning a 12 year period, 87 stifles with MPL that were treated by standard surgical techniques were included. Inclination angle (ICA), femoral varus angle (FVA), anatomical lateral distal femoral angle (aLDFA), and mechanical lateral distal femoral angle (mLDFA) were measured. Postoperative complications were noted and outcome evaluated. Associations between potential risk factors and both complication rate and outcome were assessed. Results: Postoperative complications occurred in 19 stifles, five of which were major. There was no evidence of an association between FVA (p = 0.41) or aLDFA (p = 0.38) and any complication. There was also no evidence of an association between FVA (p = 0.31) or aLDFA (p = 0.38) and any major complication. Dogs with a larger aLDFA had increased odds of a poorer outcome (p = 0.01) as did dogs that suffered a major complication (p = 0.0001). Clinical significance: Based on radiographic measurements, there is no evidence of an association between FVA and the incidence of postoperative complications following standard MPL correction. Traditional surgical techniques appear to be appropriate for most cases of MPL and further work is required to better define selection criteria for including DFO in the treatment of these cases.... K. L. Perry (1), R. J. Adams (2), S. J. Andrews (1), C. Tewson (3), M. Bruce (4) 27669 2017-06-20 16:33:08