Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology (VCOT) Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology (VCOT) vcot de-de Sun, 29 Mar 15 03:05:32 +0200 Ahead of print: Reconstruction of chronic triceps tendon avulsion using synthetic mesh graft in a... Avulsion of the triceps tendon insertion was diagnosed in a two-year-old Poodle mixed breed dog 10 weeks after traumatic injury. Diagnosis was confirmed with clinical examination and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The tendon was reconstructed using tension-relieving sutures augmented with a synthetic degradable porous polyurethane urea onlay mesh graft. The repair was immobilized using a transarticular external skeletal fixator with staged increases in elbow flexion. Treatment was successful, with signs of healing confirmed by MRI and normal clinical function one year after surgery. The successful outcome in this case suggests that surgical repair of a chronic triceps tendon injury using a synthetic mesh augmentation may be successful in similar cases. L. Ambrosius (1), C. Arnoldy (2), K. R. Waller III (2), J. P. Little (3), J. A. Bleedorn (2) 24191 2015-03-25 10:24:30 Ahead of print: Radiographic and computed tomographic assessment of the development of the... Objectives: To compare the development, monitored by radiography and computed tomography, of the antebrachia and elbow joints in seven Labrador Retrievers with healthy elbow joints and in seven Labrador Retrievers that developed medial coronoid disease (MCD), in order to determine whether disturbances in the development of the antebrachia and elbow joints, between the age of six and 17 weeks may lead to medial coronoid disease. Methods: A prospective study of 14 Labrador Retrievers in their active growth stage was performed. The development of the antebrachia and elbow joints was assessed between six and 17 weeks of age using radiography and computed tomography determining the development of secondary ossification centres, radioulnar length ratio, radial angulation, and inter-relationship between the humerus, ulna and radius. Results: For the parameters of ossification of secondary ossification centres, radioulnar length ratio, radial angulation, and joint congruence evaluation, there was no significant difference in the development of the antebrachia and elbow joints of seven Labrador Retrievers positive and seven Labrador Retrievers negative for MCD at the age of six to 17 weeks. Clinical significance: These findings demonstrate that the development of MCD in the Labrador Retrievers in our study was not related to any disturbance in the development of the antebrachia and elbow joints during the rapid growth phase.... S. F. Lau (1, 2), H. A. W. Hazewinkel (3), G. Voorhout (1) 24190 2015-03-25 10:23:09 Ahead of print: Repair of chronic rupture of the insertion of the gastrocnemius tendon in the dog... Objectives: Chronic degeneration of the gastrocnemius tendon results in scar tissue formation at the insertion of the tendon, and detachment from the calcaneus. In severe cases, excision of this tissue makes repositioning of the tendon to the calcaneus extremely difficult. A polyethylene terephthalate implant, used to aide repair by bridging gaps and allowing tissue ingrowth, was evaluated. Methods: In this retrospective study, clinical records were evaluated to assess long-term outcomes and complications. The surgical technique is also described. The implant was sutured proximally into the gastrocnemius at the myotendinous junction, and secured into the calcaneus using an interference screw. Results: The implant was used in 10 patients; of which seven returned to full function. Major complications, due to infection, were identified in two of the 10 patients. Minor complications occurred in five of the 10 patients. These were associated with external coaptation in three of the patients in the immediate postoperative period. One minor infection was reported. These all resolved without further complication. Long-term outcome was available in eight patients, with six of these eight dogs returning to normal exercise. Clinical significance: This implant may be suitable for use in canine patients with severe gastrocnemius tendon degeneration. Ongoing evaluation is warranted.... M. A. Morton (1), D. G. Thomson (1), R. M. Rayward (1, 2), M. Jiménez-Peláez (1), R. G. Whitelock (1) 24189 2015-03-25 10:21:45 Ahead of print: A comparison of anatomical lateral distal femoral angles obtained with four femoral... Objectives: To report the repeatability and reproducibility of four different anatomical proximal femoral axis (a-PFA) methods for measuring anatomical lateral distal femoral angle (a-LDFA), and to compare a-LDFA values produced by each method at three different femoral elevation angles. Methods: Digital radiographs were obtained of seven dry canine femora at 0°, 12.5° and 25° elevations. Using image analysis software, landmarks defining four different a-PFA and the condylar axis were identified by two independent observers on two separate occasions. Corresponding a-LDFA were calculated for each femur, elevation and a-PFA. Repeatability and reproducibility parameters were calculated and compared statistically, along with the effect of technique and elevation on a-LDFA value. Results: Interobserver repeatability coefficients were subjectively better for three of the a-PFA methods at 2° compared to the fourth at 3.1°. Median a-LDFA increased significantly (p ≤0.002) with increasing femoral elevation for all a-PFA methods, with a median increase of 3.3°. The median difference in a-LDFA between a-PFA methods yielding the highest and lowest measurements was 2.6° over all three elevations. Clinical significance: The combined effects of a-PFA choice, femoral elevation and measurement reproducibility may produce typical errors of ± 2.6°, which could have implications for the selection of candidates for corrective osteotomies. Clinicians need to be aware that values obtained with one method and femoral elevation may not be equivalent to values obtained with other methods or elevations.... J. E. Miles (1), M. Mortensen (1), E. L. Svalastoga (1), T. Eriksen (1) 24188 2015-03-25 10:20:44 Ahead of print: Treatment of a diaphyseal long-bone defect with autologous bone grafts and... Introduction: Large bone defects are a therapeutic challenge to surgeons and are often associated with a high morbidity. The use of autologous cancellous bone graft represents an essential therapeutic option and is considered the gold standard. However, the use of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) for improving bone defect healing has been discussed controversially. The aim of this study was to evaluate the treatment of a diaphyseal long-bone defect in a rabbit model with a combination of PRP and autologous cancellous bone. Material and methods: A monocortical long-bone defect in the radial diaphysis of 24 New Zealand white rabbits was filled either with autologous cancellous graft as a control group or with autologous cancellous graft combined with autologous PRP. Histomorphometrical and radiological analysis as well as quantification of platelets and growth factors were performed. The animals were euthanatized after three and six weeks according to the study arms. Results: A significant improvement in bone healing was observed histomorphometrically in the PRP group in the central area of the defect zone (p <0.01) as well as the cortical defect zone (p <0.01). The radiological findings were in accordance with the histomorphometrical results. Comparing native blood and PRP an enrichment of growth factors and platelets was detectable in the PRP. Conclusion: Within this animal study, the combination of PRP and autologous cancellous bone grafts improved bone healing significantly compared to the sole application of autologous bone. Therefore, further efforts should be initiated to establish the composite of PRP and autologous bone for bone healing disorders in clinical use.... J. Schneppendahl (1), P. Jungbluth (1), T. T. Lögters (1), M. Sager (2), M. Wild (1), M. Hakimi (1), J. Windolf (1), J. P. Grassmann (1) 24187 2015-03-25 10:19:37 Ahead of print: Effect of locally injected autologous platelet-rich plasma on second intention wound... Objectives: Second intention wound healing may be impaired by wound and host factors and thus more advanced therapies are required for a fast and satisfactory outcome. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP), rich in growth factors and cytokines essential for tissue repair, could improve wound healing. The purpose of this experimental study was to evaluate the effect of locally injected autologous PRP on second intention healing of acute full-thickness skin defects in dogs. Methods: Three 2x2 cm full-thickness skin defects were created bilaterally on the dorsolateral area of the trunk of six Beagle dogs. The wounds of one randomly selected side received PRP treatment, whereas the contralateral wounds were left untreated (controls). Wound healing was evaluated by planimetry, laser-Doppler flowmetry measurements of tissue perfusion, and histologically. Results: The rate of wound healing did not differ significantly between the two groups. Tissue perfusion was significantly higher in the PRP-treated group (p = 0.008) compared to controls on day 10. Histological evaluation revealed a trend towards greater collagen production and a significantly better collagen orientation (p = 0.019) in PRP-treated wounds on day 20. Clinical significance: Locally injected autologous PRP does not accelerate the healing process, but increases tissue perfusion and may promote the formation of organized collagen bundles in acute full-thickness skin defects in dogs.... M. Karayannopoulou (1), D. Psalla (2), G. Kazakos (1), P. Loukopoulos (2), N. Giannakas (1), I. Savvas (1), M. Kritsepi-Konstantinou (3), A. Chantes (4), L. G. Papazoglou (1) 24186 2015-03-25 10:17:26 Veterinary Orthopedic Society - 42nd Annual Conference Abstracts 24151 2015-03-17 10:11:57 Prior Publication of Papers K. A. Johnson 24150 2015-03-17 09:33:09 Ahead of print: Perioperative risk factors for surgical site infection in tibial tuberosity... Objective: To examine perioperative factors affecting surgical site infection (SSI) rate following tibial tuberosity advancement (TTA). Study design: Retrospective case series. Sample population: 224 stifles in 186 dogs. Methods: Medical records of dogs that underwent TTA in a single institution were reviewed. Information on signalment, anaesthetic and surgical parameters, as well as occurrence of SSI was recorded. Dogs were followed for a minimum of three months postoperatively. The association between perioperative factors and SSI was assessed using Chi-squared tests and binary logistic regression. Results: The prevalence of SSI was 5.3% (12/224 TTA). Surgical time (p = 0.02) and anaesthesia time (p = 0.03) were significantly associated with SSI. For every minute increase in surgical time and anaesthesia time, the likelihood of developing SSI increased by seven percent and four percent respectively. The use of postoperative antimicrobial therapy was not significantly associated with lower SSI (p = 0.719). Implants were removed in 1.3% of cases (3/224 TTA). Conclusions: The findings of this study suggest that increased surgical and anaesthesia times are significant risk factors for SSI in TTA, and that there is no evidence that postoperative prophylactic antimicrobial therapy is associated with SSI rate.... F. W. Yap (1), I. Calvo (1), K. D. Smith (1), T. Parkin (1) 24115 2015-03-11 08:39:35 Ahead of print: Evaluation of the diagnostic accuracy of four-view radiography and conventional... Objective: The purpose of our study was (1) to determine whether four-view radiography of the pelvis is as reliable and accurate as computed tomography (CT) in diagnosing sacral and pelvic fractures, in addition to coxofemoral and sacroiliac joint subluxation or luxation, and (2) to evaluate the effect of the amount of training in reading diagnostic imaging studies on the accuracy of diagnosing sacral and pelvic fractures in dogs. Methods: Sacral and pelvic fractures were created in 11 canine cadavers using a lateral impactor. In all cadavers, frog-legged ventro-dorsal, lateral, right and left ventro-45°-medial to dorsolateral oblique frog leg (“rollover 45-degree view”) radiographs and a CT of the pelvis were obtained. Two radiologists, two surgeons and two veterinary students classified fractures using a confidence scale and noted the duration of evaluation for each imaging modality and case. The imaging results were compared to gross dissection. Results: All evaluators required significantly more time to analyse CT images compared to radiographic images. Sacral and pelvic fractures, specifically those of the sacral body, ischiatic table, and the pubic bone, were more accurately diagnosed using CT compared to radiography. Fractures of the acetabulum and iliac body were diagnosed with similar accuracy (at least 86%) using either modality. Clinical significance: Computed tomography is a better method for detecting canine sacral and some pelvic fractures compared to radiography. Computed tomography provided an accuracy of close to 100% in persons trained in evaluating CT images.... S. M. Stieger-Vanegas (1), S. K. J. Senthirajah (1), S. Nemanic (1), W. Baltzer (1), J. Warnock (1), G. Bobe (2, 3) 24114 2015-03-11 08:38:55 Ahead of print: The potential tyranny of statistical power J. K. Roush (1) 24113 2015-03-11 08:37:52 Augmentation of diaphyseal fractures of the radius and ulna in toy breed dogs using a free... Objectives: Evaluation of the short-term outcome, duration of bone healing, and complications following bone plate fixation in dogs weighing ≤6 kg, with and without the use of a free autogenous greater omental graft (OG). Materials and methods: A retrospective clinical study reviewed the medical records of 25 dogs of body weight <6 kg with mid to distal diaphyseal fractures of the radius and ulna (29 fractures) treated with open reduction bone plate fixation. Thirteen out of 29 fractures were implanted with an additional 2–3 cm³ OG lateral, cranial, and medial to the fracture site, adjacent to the bone plate. Results: Median time to radiographic healing in OG fractures (n = 11) was 70 days (range 28–98) compared to 106 days (range: 56–144) in non-OG grafted fractures (n = 14). The OG dogs had no major complications; minor complications included oedema, erythema, and mild osteopenia. Six of the eight non-OG dogs for which follow-up could be obtained developed osteopenia necessitating implant removal, four of which re-fractured the radius one to five months after implant removal, with one dog re-fracturing the limb a second time and resulting in amputation. Telephone follow-up of owners of OG dogs (n = 11) three to 15 months (median 10) post-surgery did not identify any signs of lameness or other complications. Owners of the non-OG dogs (n = 8) reported that there were not any signs of lameness six to 48 months (median 36) post-surgery. Clinical relevance: Free autogenous omental grafting of diaphyseal fractures of the radius and ulna was associated with radial and ulnar healing with minimal complications in dogs weighing less than 6 kg.... W. I. Baltzer (1), S. Cooley (2), J. J. Warnock (1), S. Nemanic (1), S. M. Stieger-Vanagas (1) 24045 2015-02-23 08:54:26 Mechanical performance in axial compression of a titanium polyaxial locking plate system in a... Objective: To evaluate the bending strength of the VetLOX® polyaxial locking plate system. Materials and methods: Thirty-five 3.5 mm 12-hole titanium VetLOX® plates were used to stabilize seven different construct designs in a 1 cm fracture gap simulation model. Each construct was subjected to axial compression. Mean bending stiffness (BS) and yield load (YL) of each construct design were analysed using a one-way ANOVA and Tukey post-hoc analysis. Screw angulation was measured on reconstructed computed tomography (CT) images. Results: Reducing plate working length for fixed-angle constructs significantly increased BS (p A. W. Tomlinson (1), E. J. Comerford (1, 2), R. S. Birch (3), J. F. Innes (4), M. B. Walton (4) 24044 2015-02-23 08:53:31 Femoral nerve entrapment in a dog with diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis Objective: To report femoral neuropathy caused by nerve entrapment associated with diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH). Study Design: Case report. Animal: Seven-year-old female spayed Boxer dog. Results: Entrapment of the right femoral nerve due to DISH caused a femoral nerve deficit and atrophy of muscle groups associated with the affected nerve. A combination of computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging was performed to provide a diagnosis. Amputation of the right transverse process of the sixth lumbar vertebra at the level of nerve entrapment relieved the neurological abnormality. Conclusions: Nerve entrapment leading to neurapraxia may occur concurrently with DISH and surgery in this case was successful in restoring function. Clinical relevance: Peripheral neuropathy from nerve entrapment should be considered in patients with DISH. Surgical amputation of impinging osseous structures may be indicated for relief of femoral neuropathy. A. Lai (1), J. Culvenor (1), C. Bailey (1), S. Davies (2) 23964 2015-02-04 14:53:04 Bilateral cervical ribs in a Dobermann Pinscher An 11-year-old intact female Doberman Pinscher was presented with the complaint of non-ambulatory tetraparesis. Clinical and neurological examination revealed a caudal cervical spinal cord disfunction (C6-T2 spinal cord segments). Magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomographic (CT) findings of the cervical spine were consistent with caudal cervical spondylomyelopathy (CSM). During the diagnostic work-up for the cervical spine, bilateral bone anomalies involving the seventh cervical vertebra and the first ribs were found on radiographs and CT examination. The rib anomalies found in this dog appear similar to cervical ribs widely described in human medicine. In people, cervical ribs are associated with a high rate of stillbirth, early childhood cancer, and can cause the thoracic outlet syndrome, characterized by neurovascular compression at level of superior aperture of the chest. In dogs, only some sporadic anatomopathological descriptions of cervical ribs exist. In this report the radiographic and CT findings of these particular vertebral and rib anomalies along with their relationships with adjacent vasculature and musculature are shown intravitam in a dog. Specific radiographic and CT findings described in this report may help in reaching a presumptive diagnosis of this anomaly. Finally, their clinical and evolutionary significance are discussed.... M. Ricciardi (1), A. De Simone (1), F. Gernone (1), P. Giannuzzi (1) 23963 2015-02-04 14:52:23 Patellar groove replacement in patellar luxation with severe femoro-patellar osteoarthritis Objective: To report a novel method of treating femoro-patellar instability in association with severe femoro-patellar osteoarthritis, by substituting the femoral trochlear with a patellar groove replacement prosthesis. Study design: Retrospective case series. Methods: Preoperative lameness was scored from 0–4, and radiographic studies including standard positions for patellar luxation were obtained for evidence of malalignment and femoro-patellar osteoarthritis. Cases with or without previous surgeries were included. The size of trochlear implant was determined by transparent templates and confirmed intra-operatively with trials. Radiographic images, together with clinical examinations, were reviewed immediately and at three months postoperatively and at longer term when available. Results: Thirty-five cases of patellar luxation ranging from grades II to IV were included. Eleven of these cases had prior surgical interventions which failed to stabilize the patella. Fourteen dogs required additional surgical procedures in conjunction with patellar groove replacement. Complications occurred in six patients, of which three required revision. Complete resolution of subjectively-assessed lameness was evident in 24/35 cases by the third month and in another seven of 35 patients on the longer term re-evaluations. Clinical significance: Use of a patellar groove replacement prosthesis has the potential to decrease the lameness associated with severe femoro-patellar arthritis, to improve patellar stability, and to correct the alignment of the extensor mechanism.... Z. Dokic (1), D. Lorinson (1), J. P. Weigel (2), A. Vezzoni (3) 23962 2015-02-04 14:51:36 Impact of fixation method on postoperative complication rates following surgical stabilization of... Objectives: To compare the complication rate between open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) and external skeletal fixation (ESF) for feline diaphyseal tibial fractures. Methods: In a retrospective study spanning a 10 year period, 57 feline tibial fractures stabilized via ESF or ORIF were included for analysis and complication rates were compared between the two methods. Results: In the overall study population, 23 (40.4%) cases suffered complications (9 major, 20 minor, 6 with both major and minor). All of the major complications occurred in the ESF group. Complications were more common in cats with ESF (50.0%) while only one (7.7%) of the ORIF cases suffered complications (OR 12.0 [CI: 2.09; 228.10], p = 0.02). Use of postoperative antibiotic medications was identified as a confounder. After adjusting for confounding, stabilization using ESF remained associated with a higher risk of complications (OR = 13.71 [CI: 2.18; 274.25], p = 0.02). Cats with ESF had a longer duration of follow-up (15.6 weeks; 95% CI: 13.0; 18.3) compared to ORIF (9.5 weeks; 95% CI: 6.4; 12.7) (p = 0.003), and a higher number of revisits (mean 3.0; 95% CI: 2.4; 3.6) than the ORIF group (mean 1.6; 95% CI: 0.9; 2.3) (p = 0.002). Clinical significance: This study demonstrates a significant difference in complication rates between the methods of stabilization, with ESF resulting in a significantly higher complication rate compared to ORIF. Based on these results, it may be prudent to select ORIF for stabilization of feline tibial fractures wherever practical.... K. L. Perry (1), M. Bruce (2) 23961 2015-02-04 14:50:50 Risk factors for tibial tuberosity fracture after tibial tuberosity advancement in dogs Objective: To retrospectively identify factors that predispose to tibial tuberosity (TT) fracture after tibial tuberosity advancement (TTA) in dogs. Methods: The medical records and radiographs of a group of control dogs (n = 212) that had TTA surgery (n = 241 procedures) and did not sustain a fracture between 2008 and 2013, and those of 12 dogs that did sustain a fracture (n = 13 procedures) between 2008 and 2013 at two veterinary teaching hospitals were evaluated to determine the effect of signalment, body weight and surgical inaccuracies on TT fracture. Multivariable logistic regression was performed with the occurrence of TT fracture as the outcome variable of interest. Results: Signalment and body weight were not found to be associated with TT fracture. Of the surgical inaccuracies, osteotomy shape (p = 0.003), plate position (p = 0.009), and cage position (p = 0.039) were factors significantly associated with TT fracture. Clinical significance: This study provides data to support the hypothesis that poor plate position, poor cage position, and narrow distal osteotomy width are associated with TT fracture after TTA. We conclude that it is of paramount importance to pay careful attention to surgical technique in order to reduce this risk.... A. E. Nutt (1), P. Garcia-Fernandez (2), F. San Roman (2), T. Parkin (3), I. Calvo (1, 4) 23960 2015-02-04 14:49:38 Complete sequencing and characterization of equine aggrecan Objectives: To fully sequence and characterize equine aggrecan and confirm conservation of major aggrecanase, calpain and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) cleavage sites. Methods: Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and rapid amplification of cDNA ends were used to generate clones that encompassed the complete equine aggrecan sequence. Clones were sequenced and compared with the equine genome database to determine intron-exon boundaries. Results: The aggrecan gene spans over 61 kb on chromosome 1 and is encoded by 17 exons. Two major variants of aggrecan were cloned; one containing 8187 bp (2728 amino acids) and a second sequence of 8061 nucleotides (2686 amino acids). The variation was due to a CS1 domain polymorphism. Both sequences are substantially larger than predicted by the genomic database; 11 CS1 repeat elements are absent in the database sequence. The equine amino acid sequence was compared with human, bovine and murine sequences. Globular domains 1, 2 and 3 are highly conserved (overall identity over 80%). Equine CS1 is considerably larger than in other species and, therefore, is the least conserved domain (an overall amino acid identity of 22%). Previously defined aggrecanase, calpain and MMP cleavage sites were identified. Western blotting of chondrocyte culture samples showed complex post-secretion processing. Clinical significance: The complete equine aggrecan sequence will support more in-depth research on aggrecan processing and degradation in equine articular cartilage and other musculoskeletal tissues.... E. H. G. Caporali (1), T. Kuykendall (1), M. C. Stewart (1) 23951 2015-01-30 08:15:00 The effect of intramedullary pin size and monocortical screw configuration on locking compression... Objective: To investigate the effect of intramedullary pin size in combination with various monocortical screw configurations on locking compression plate-rod constructs. Methods: A synthetic bone model with a 40 mm fracture gap was used. Locking compression plates with monocortical locking screws were tested with no pin (LCP-Mono) and intramedullary pins of 20% (LCPR-20), 30% (LCPR-30) and 40% (LCPR-40) of intramedullary diameter. Locking compression plates with bicortical screws (LCP-Bi) were also tested. Screw configurations with two or three screws per fragment modelled long (8-hole), intermediate (6-hole), and short (4-hole) plate working lengths. Responses to axial compression, biplanar four-point bending and axial load-to-failure were recorded. Results: LCP-Bi were not significantly different from LCP-Mono control for any of the outcome variables. In bending, LCPR-20 were not significantly different from LCP-Bi and LCP-Mono. The LCPR-30 were stiffer than LCPR-20 and the controls. The LCPR-40 constructs were stiffer than all other constructs. The addition of an intramedullary pin of any size provided a significant increase in axial stiffness and load to failure. This effect was incremental with increasing intramedullary pin diameter. As plate working length decreased there was a significant increase in stiffness across all constructs. Clinical significance: A pin of any size increases resistance to axial loads whereas a pin of at least 30% intramedullary diameter is required to increase bending stiffness. Short plate working lengths provide maximum stiffness. However, the overwhelming effect of intramedullary pin size obviates the effect of changing working length on construct stiffness.... T. Pearson (1), M. Glyde (1), G. Hosgood (1), R. Day (2) 23950 2015-01-30 08:13:40 Evaluation of the accuracy of a veterinary dynamometric wire tensioner Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy of a commonly used veterinary wire tensioner. Methods: Wire tension was measured using a load cell after each of five tensioners were used to tension each of six wires to the 66, 84, and 118 mm ring settings in an adjustable custom testing fixture. Each tensioner then experienced simulated aging and testing was repeated. Percentage error was calculated for each ring size, before and after tensioner aging. Measured tension values were compared to manufacturer reported tension values for each ring size using a one-sample two-way t-test; p C. M. Gauthier (1), K. McGilvray (2), S. Myrick (3), F. Duerr (1), R. Palmer (1) 23949 2015-01-30 08:12:27 Cementless Total Hip Replacement Complications K. A. Johnson 23887 2015-01-12 14:53:17 Computed tomographic evaluation of elbow congruity during arthroscopy in a canine cadaveric model Objective: To assess the effect of arthroscope insertion, using a carbon-fibre rod model, on humero-radial, humero-ulnar and radio-ulnar congruity, as assessed by computed tomography (CT). Methods: Cadaveric Greyhound elbow joints were assessed at a flexion angle of 135 ± 5° using CT. For condition 1, a 36 mm fulcrum induced cubital valgus, as used to aid arthroscope insertion. For conditions 2 and 3, a single 1.8 or 2.5 mm diameter rod was inserted under arthroscopic guidance to simulate arthroscope position for assessment of the medial coronoid process. Repeat CT scans were obtained for all conditions and parasagittal sections were reconstructed to evaluate medial, axial and lateral positions within the elbow. Humero-radial, humero-ulnar, and radio-ulnar congruity measurements were obtained. Differences between groups were assessed using repeated measures analysis of variance. Results: Mean (±SD) change in radio-ulnar step between conditions 1 and 3 was 0.6 ± 0.3 mm (axial), 0.8 ± 0.6 mm (medial), and 0.5 ± 0.1 mm (lateral). Insertion of rods induced a significant decrease in radio-ulnar step in all planes. Significant differences were also identified between groups for humero-radial, humero-ulnar, and radio-ulnar congruity. Clinical significance: Insertion of carbon-fibre rods as a model for elbow arthroscope insertion induces elbow incongruity. Changes in radio-ulnar congruity are small but the effect of arthroscope diameter should be considered when assessing elbow congruity.... O. T. Skinner (1), C. M. R. Warren-Smith (1), N. J. Burton (1), K. J. Parsons (1) 23818 2014-12-09 10:20:56 Congenital cervical kyphosis in two young sighthounds Introduction: Cervical vertebral (C) malformation is rarely reported in large breed dogs. Congenital cervical kyphosis (CCK) may result from defects of vertebral segmentation, failure of formation or both. This report describes two cases of C3-C4 CCK in young sighthounds, treated surgically. Case description: An 18-month-old female Deerhound and a six-week-old female Borzoi dog were presented because of the complaints of reluctance to exercise and signs of of neck pain. Both dogs were neurologically normal. Diagnostic imaging revealed C3-C4 deformity, moderate kyphosis, and spinal canal stenosis associated with chronic spinal cord pressure atrophy. Both dogs underwent surgical treatment. Results: A staged two-step surgery starting with dorsal decompression was elected in the Deerhound. After the first surgical procedure, the dog developed focal myelomalacia and phrenic nerve paralysis and was euthanatized. A ventral distraction-fusion technique with two locking plates was performed in the Borzoi. This patient recovered uneventfully and long-term follow-up computed tomography revealed complete spondylodesis. Clinical significance: Until now, CCK has only been described in sighthounds. Congenital cervical kyphosis might be considered a differential diagnosis in these breeds that are presented with signs of cervical pain. Ventral realignment-fusion and bone grafting may be considered for surgical treatment, although the earliest age at which this procedure can and should be performed remains unclear.... F. Forterre (1), D. Casoni (2), A. Tomek (3), P. Karli (3), J. Howard (4), C. Precht (5) 23817 2014-12-09 10:19:47 Influence of calibration protocols for a pressure-sensing walkway on kinetic and temporospatial... Objectives: To evaluate the influence on the kinetic and temporospatial parameters of calibration protocols with point and step techniques for a pressure-sensing walkway. Methods: Nine Labrador dogs were used. Two protocols of point calibration technique (C1 and C2) and eight protocols of step calibration technique (C3 to C10) were performed. In C1, weight was added to a stool to match the body mass of each dog. In C2, weight was added to the stool to match a 46.1 kg person. The other eight calibration protocols represented combinations of the following factors: 46.1 kg and 96.1 kg persons, barefoot or wearing sneakers, and stepping onto the platform with one or two feet. Results: The calibration protocols did not affect the temporospatial variables or percentages of body weight (%BW) distribution. Significant differences were found in both PVI (peak vertical force) and VI (vertical impulse) between barefoot versus wearing sneakers, 46.1 kg versus 96.1 kg person, and stepping onto the platform with one foot versus two feet. When comparing C1 with other protocols, significant differences were observed in PVF and VI for both forelimbs and hindlimbs. When comparing C2 with other protocols, significant differences were observed in PVF and VI for both forelimbs and hindlimbs in all protocols. Clinical significance: The PVF and VI were influenced by the calibration protocol used, but the %BW distribution and temporospatial parameters were not. Using the same calibration protocol for all dogs within the same group eliminated the variability of the kinetic data caused by the calibration.... F. S. Agostinho (1), S. C. Rahal (1), B. Geraldo (1), P. L. T. Justolin (1), C. R. Teixeira (1), F. L. M. L. Lins (2), F. O. B. Monteiro (2) 23786 2014-12-02 11:10:44