Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology (VCOT) Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology (VCOT) vcot de-de http://www.schattauer.de/rss.html Fri, 30 Sep 16 03:37:21 +0200 http://www.schattauer.de/fileadmin/assets/zeitschriften/vcot/rss_vcot.jpg Human error and surgical complications http://vcot.schattauer.de/t3page/1214.html?manuscript=26589 K. Johnson 26589 2016-09-20 16:17:01 A response to: “Evaluation of pain” http://vcot.schattauer.de/t3page/1214.html?manuscript=26261 L. J. Beever (1), E. R. Kulendra (1), R. L. Meeson (1) 26261 2016-08-05 08:36:06 Surgical correction of bilateral metacarpophalangeal valgus with curved osteotomies and type II... http://vcot.schattauer.de/t3page/1214.html?manuscript=26125 Objective: To report the successful surgical correction of severe bilateral metacarpophalangeal valgus angular limb deformities in a seven-month-old intact male alpaca cria using curved osteotomies stabilized with type II external skeletal fixation. Methods: Using a 21 mm crescentic shaped oscillating saw blade, bilateral osteotomies were performed in the distal metaphyses of the fused third and fourth metacarpal bones to correct valgus angular limb deformity of the metacarpophalangeal joints. Axial alignment of each limb was achieved by medially rotating the distal metacarpus in the frontal plane along the curved osteotomies. The osteotomies were stabilized using type II external skeletal fixators. Results: The alpaca was immediately weight-bearing following the surgical procedure and no to minimal lameness was observed during healing of the osteotomies. Evaluation at five and 10 months following the surgery demonstrated acceptable axial alignment in the left forelimb while moderate to severe varus deformity (overcorrection) was observed in the right. Clinical significance: Curved osteotomy of the distal metacarpus stabilized with type II external skeletal fixation can provide a favourable outcome in older alpaca crias affected with metacarpophalangeal angular limb deformities. Placement of the distal transfixation pins relative to the metacarpal physes should be carefully evaluated as overcorrection is possible, especially if growthpotential remains in only one physis of the fused third and fourth metacarpal bones.... M. J. Schoonover (1), C. T. Whitfield (1), M. C. Rochat (2), R. N. Streeter (1), K. Sippel (3) 26125 2016-07-29 10:31:26 Biomechanical evaluation of polymethyl methacrylate with the addition of various doses of cefazolin,... http://vcot.schattauer.de/t3page/1214.html?manuscript=26124 Objectives: Numerous studies have examined the biomechanics of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) with added antibiotics, but direct comparison between studies is difficult. Our purpose was to evaluate the effects of the addition of antibiotic drugs and silver on compressive and bending strength of PMMA. Our null hypothesis was that there would be no significant difference in the compressive strength or bending strength of PMMA with the addition of silver or varying amounts of antibiotic drugs. Methods: Polymethyl methacrylate was mixed with cefazolin, gentamicin, vancomycin, or silver; the control was PMMA alone. Antibiotic groups contained 20 g PMMA and 0.5 g, 1 g, 2 g, or 3 g of antibiotic. Silver groups had 0.25 g silver powder alone added to 20 g PMMA or silver with PMMA and 0, 0.5 g or 1 g of antibiotic. Samples underwent four-point bending and compression testing in air at room temperature and prevailing humidity. Pairwise comparisons between groups and to the ASTM and ISO standards were performed. Results: Compression: All antibiotic and silver groups were weaker than the control. Samples with cefazolin tended to be stronger than other antibiotic groups with equivalent doses of antibiotic. All groups were above the ASTM standard, except 3 g vancomycin. Four-point bending: The addition of antibiotics did not significantly affect bending strength in groups with lower doses of antibiotics. The silver + PMMA group was weaker than the control. No groups were significantly below the ISO standard except the 3 g vancomycin group. Clinical significance: The addition of antibiotic or silver decreased the biomechanical strength in all samples, but not below the ASTM or ISO standard for most groups. The addition of cefazolin appears to affect strength the least, while high doses of vancomycin alter strength the most.... M. G. Ficklin (1), K. A. R. Kunkel (1), J. T. Suber (1), P. D. Gerard (2), M. P. Kowaleski (3) 26124 2016-07-29 08:41:38 Bone morphogenetic protein 2 stimulates chondrogenesis of equine synovial membrane-derived... http://vcot.schattauer.de/t3page/1214.html?manuscript=26123 Objectives: Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) is critical for skeletal and cartilage development, homeostasis and repair. This study was conducted to clone and characterize equine BMP-2, develop expression constructs for equine BMP-2, and to determine whether BMP-2 can stimulate chondrogenesis of equine synovial membrane-derived progenitor cells (SMPC). Methods: Equine BMP-2 cDNA was amplified from chondrocyte RNA, and then transferred into an expression plasmid and adenoviral vector. Effective expression of equine BMP-2 was confirmed using a BMP reporter cell line. SMPC were isolated from synovium, expanded through two passages and transferred to chondrogenic cultures, with recombinant human (rh) transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) or rhBMP-2. Chondrogenesis was assessed by up-regulation of collagen types II and X, and aggrecan mRNA, secretion of collagen type II protein and sulfated glycosaminoglycans (sGAG), and by alkaline phosphatase induction. Chondrogenic stimulation of SMPC by the equine BMP-2 adenovirus was assessed by sGAG secretion and histology. Results: The mature equine BMP-2 peptide is identical to human and murine peptides. Recombinant human BMP-2 and TGF-β1 stimulated equivalent amounts of collagen type II protein in SMPC pellets, but sGAG secretion was doubled by BMP-2. Neither factor stimulated hypertrophic marker expression. The equine BMP-2 adenoviral vector induced chondrogenesis comparably to rhBMP-2 protein, with no indication of hypertrophy. Clinical significance: Bone morphogenetic protein 2 is a potent inducer of SMPC non-hypertrophic chondrogenesis, supporting the use of this combination for articular cartilage repair applications.... Y. Chen (1, 2), E. Caporali (1, 3), M. Stewart (1) 26123 2016-07-29 08:40:55 Analysis of risk factors for elbow dysplasia in giant breed dogs http://vcot.schattauer.de/t3page/1214.html?manuscript=26122 Objective: Identify radiographic risk factors for development of elbow dysplasia in giant breed dogs less than one year of age. Methods: Twenty-five giant breed puppies (Bernese Mountain dogs, English Mastiff, and Newfoundland) were studied. Both elbows of each dog were radiographed monthly from two to six months of age, then every other month until radial and ulnar physeal closure, followed two months later by bilateral elbow computed tomography. Radiographic parameters measured included the presence or absence of a separate centre of ossification of the anconeal process (SCOAP), medial coronoid disease (MCD), ununited anconeal process, humeral osteochondrosis, elbow incongruity, as well as the length of the radius and ulna, radius-to-ulna ratio, and date of closure of the radial and ulnar physes. Results: Fifteen dogs completed the study. Two Bernese Mountain dogs were diagnosed with MCD. Risk factors significantly associated with medial coronoid disease included dyssynchronous physeal closure and a decreased radius-to-ulna ratio, both detected between eight to 11 months of age. A separate centre of ossification of the anconeal process was present in 60% of the dogs, and was not a risk factor for development of elbow dysplasia. Clinical significance: Transient, dyssynchronous growth of the radius and ulna may be a risk factor for development of MCD in Bernese Mountain dogs. Dyssynchronous physeal closure or decreased radius-to-ulna ratio prior to radiographic closure of the distal ulnar and radial physes warrants further study in Bernese Mountain dogs and other breeds subject to MCD development.... S. Nemanic (1), B. K. Nixon (2), W. Baltzer (1) 26122 2016-07-29 08:40:09 Video-assisted removal of metal pellet fragments from the vertebral canal following gunshot injury... http://vcot.schattauer.de/t3page/1214.html?manuscript=26121 Objective: To describe the surgical management and long-term outcome of a spinal gunshot injury in a cat. Clinical report: A two‐year‐old, 4.2 kg castrated European Shorthair male cat was referred for evaluation of bilateral acute hindlimb paralysis with loss of deep pain perception in the right hindlimb associated with a perforating gunshot wound in the left side of the flank. Based on the clinical findings, the injury was localized to the fourth lumbar-first sacral spinal cord segment. The orthogonal spinal radiographs and computed tomography examination showed several metal pellet fragments within the vertebral canal of the sixth lumbar vertebra. A left mini-hemilaminectomy of the sixth lumbar vertebra pedicle combined with a mini dorsal laminectomy over the sixth to seventh lumbar vertebrae disc space were performed. A 2.4 mm 30° arthroscope was then introduced within the spinal canal to improve visibility and help with the fragment extraction. The cat was discharged from the hospital five days after surgery and the owners were encouraged to continue passive and active physiotherapy movements. Results: The cat was ambulatory with a plantigrade stance eight weeks following surgery. At the last follow-up examination (24 months postoperatively), the cat was able to jump on chairs, although intermittent urinary and faecal incontinence, proprioceptive deficits, and plantigrade stance were still present. Clinical significance: Decompressive surgery may promote neurological status improvement following spinal gunshot injury.... L. Matres-Lorenzo (1), A. Bernardé (1), F. Bernard (1) 26121 2016-07-29 08:39:08 Distal femoral osteotomy using a novel deformity reduction device http://vcot.schattauer.de/t3page/1214.html?manuscript=26120 Distal femoral osteotomy is a surgical procedure used to correct patellar luxation, secondary to a femoral deformity. A distal femoral osteotomy using the tibial plateau levelling osteotomy-jig to temporarily provide stability of the distal femoral osteotomy, maintaining limb alignment in the frontal and axial planes prior to internal plate fixation of the osteotomy, has been described. This report describes a novel jig named Deformity Reduction Device (DRD). This device was developed with the specific aim of increasing precision and predictability during corrective osteotomy execution in order to be consistent with the preoperative planning. The distal femoral osteotomy DRD-assisted procedure is described in detail, discussing the theoretical and practical principles of the application. E. Panichi (1), F. Cappellari (1), M. Olimpo (2), L. A. Piras (2), R. Radasch (3), A. Ferretti (4), B. Peirone (2) 26120 2016-07-29 08:38:17 Comparison of two ultrasound-guided injection techniques targeting the sacroiliac joint region in... http://vcot.schattauer.de/t3page/1214.html?manuscript=26119 Objectives: To compare the accuracy and distribution of injectate for cranial (CR) and caudomedial (CM) ultrasound-guided injections of equine sacroiliac joints. Methods: Both sacroiliac joints from 10 lumbosacropelvic specimens were injected using cranial parasagittal (CR; curved 18 gauge, 25 cm spinal needles) and caudomedial (CM; straight 18 gauge, 15 cm spinal needles) ultrasound-guided approaches. Injectate consisted of 4 ml iodinated contrast and 2 ml methylene blue. Computed tomographical (CT) scans were performed before and after injections. Time for needle guidance and repositioning attempts were recorded. The CT sequences were analysed for accuracy and distribution of contrast. Results: Intra-articular contrast was detected in sacroiliac joints following 15/40 injections. The CR and CM approaches deposited injectate ≤2 cm from sacroiliac joint margins following 17/20 and 20/20 injections, respectively. Median distance of closest contrast to the sacroiliac joint was 0.4 cm (interquartile range [IQR]: 1.5 cm) for CR approaches and 0.6 cm (IQR: 0.95 cm) for CM approaches. Cranial injections resulted in injectate contacting lumbosacral intertransverse joints 15/20 times. Caudomedial injections were perivascular 16/20 times. Limitations: Safety and efficacy could not be established. Clinical relevance: Cranial and CM ultrasound-guided injections targeting sacroiliac joints were very accurate for periarticular injection, but accuracy was poor for intra-articular injection. Injectate was frequently found in contact with interosseous sacroiliac ligaments, as well as neurovascular and synovial structures in close vicinity of sacroiliac joints.... J. D. Stack (1), C. Bergamino (2), R. Sanders (3), U. Fogarty (4), A. Puggioni (2), C. Kearney (1), F. David (5) 26119 2016-07-29 08:36:42 Biomechanical comparison of 3.0 mm headless compression screw and 3.5 mm cortical bone screw in a... http://vcot.schattauer.de/t3page/1214.html?manuscript=26094 Objective: To compare the biomechanical properties of simulated humeral condylar fractures reduced with one of two screw fixation methods: 3.0 mm headless compression screw (HCS) or 3.5 mm cortical bone screw (CBS) placed in lag fashion. Methods: Bilateral humeri were collected from nine canine cadavers. Standardized osteotomies were stabilized with 3.0 mm HCS in one limb and 3.5 mm CBS in the contralateral limb. Condylar fragments were loaded to walk, trot, and failure loads while measuring construct properties and condylar fragment motion. Results: The 3.5 mm CBS-stabilized constructs were 36% stiffer than 3.0 mm HCS-stabilized constructs, but differences were not apparent in quality of fracture reduction nor in yield loads, which exceeded expected physiological loads during rehabilitation. Small residual fragment displacements were not different between CBS and HCS screws. Small fragment rotation was not significantly different between screws, but was weakly correlated with moment arm length (R² = 0.25). Clinical significance: A CBS screw placed in lag fashion provides stiffer fixation than an HCS screw, although both screws provide similar anatomical reduction and yield strength to condylar fracture fixation in adult canine humeri.... M. N. Gonsalves (1), D. A. Jankovits (1), M. L. Huber (1), A. M. Strom (1), T. C. Garcia (2), S. M. Stover (2) 26094 2016-07-21 11:30:40 Complex angular and torsional deformities (distal femoral malunions) http://vcot.schattauer.de/t3page/1214.html?manuscript=26093 Objective: To describe the surgical technique of complex distal femoral deformity correction with the aid of stereolithography apparatus (SLA) biomodels, stabilized with locking plate fixation. Methods: Full-size replica epoxy bone biomodels of the affected femurs (4 dogs/ 5 limbs) were used as templates for surgical planning. A rehearsal procedure was performed on the biomodels aided by a guide wire technique and stabilized with locking plate fixation. Surgery performed in all dogs was guided by the rehearsal procedure. All pre-contoured implants were subsequently used in the definitive surgical procedure with minimal modification. Results: All dogs had markedly improved, with near normal functional outcomes; all but one had a mild persistent lameness at the final in-hospital follow-up examination (mean: 54.4 weeks; range: 24–113 weeks after surgery). All femurs healed without complications (mean: 34 weeks, median: 12 weeks; range: 8–12 weeks for closing osteotomies, and 26–113 weeks for opening wedge osteotomies). Long-term follow-up examination (mean: 28.6 months; range: 5–42 months) revealed all but one owner to be highly satisfied with the outcome. Complications were observed in two dogs: prolonged tibiotarsal joint decreased flexion that resolved with physical therapy. In one of these dogs, iatrogenic transection of the long digital extensor tendon was repaired, and the other had a peroneal nerve neurapraxia. Clinical significance: Stereolithography apparatus biomodels and rehearsal surgery simplified the definitive surgical corrections of complex femoral malunions and resulted in good functional outcomes.... M. D. DeTora (1), R. J. Boudrieau (1) 26093 2016-07-21 11:29:56 Ankylosis and pseudoankylosis of the temporomandibular joint in 10 dogs (1993–2015) http://vcot.schattauer.de/t3page/1214.html?manuscript=26092 Objective: To describe the clinical features and results of treatment of true ankylosis and pseudoankylosis of the temporomandibular joint in dogs. Methods: This study was a retrospective case series. Ten client-owned dogs that were presented for inability to open the mouth or a severely decreased range of motion of the temporomandibular joint were included. Information on the surgical procedures performed and the perioperative complications were documented. Three-dimensional printing of the skull was performed in four dogs. Results: Two dogs were diagnosed with temporomandibular joint ankylosis and seven dogs with pseudoankylosis. One dog had evidence of combined temporomandibular joint ankylosis and pseudoankylosis. Of the seven dogs with pseudoankylosis, six had an osseous fusion involving the zygomatic arch and mandible. Surgical treatment was performed in nine dogs and a revision surgery was needed in one dog. Follow-up ranged from five months to eight years (mean: 48.6 months). Eight out of nine dogs that were treated surgically regained the ability to open their mouth, but six dogs never regained a fully normal temporomandibular joint range of motion. Clinical significance: Temporomandibular joint ankylosis and pseudoankylosis are uncommon in the dog. Surgical treatment for temporomandibular joint ankylosis or pseudoankylosis in dogs is a successful option and carries a prognosis dependent on patient-specific abnormalities. Computed tomography complemented with three-dimensional printing is valuable for understanding the extent of abnormalities and for preoperative planning.... P. C. Strøm (1), B. Arzi (2), D. D. Cissell (2), F. J. M. Verstraete (2) 26092 2016-07-21 11:29:05 Complications of porous-coated press-fit cementless total hip replacement in dogs http://vcot.schattauer.de/t3page/1214.html?manuscript=26091 Objective: To report postoperative complications using a commercially available porous-coated press-fit cementless total hip replacement (THR) system in dogs. Methods: Medical records were reviewed for client-owned dogs with hip pathologies requiring THR. A minimum of six-week postoperative orthopaedic examination and orthogonal pelvic radiographs were used to assess outcome and complications in the perioperative period. Referring veterinarian medical records, phone interviews with clients, or both were used to assess long-term functional outcome and complications. Results: Bilateral THR was performed in 36 dogs, and unilateral in 147 dogs, making a total of 219 THR procedures in 183 dogs. A total complication rate of 31.1% (68/219) was observed. A catastrophic complication was observed in 8.2% (n = 18), a major complication in 9.6% (n = 21), and a minor complication in 13.2% (n = 29) of procedures. The most common complications were intra-operative femoral fissure (n = 46), diaphyseal femoral fracture (n = 15), and coxofemoral luxation (n = 9). Full return to function was achieved in 88.1% of procedures with a median follow-up period of 42 months. Clinical significance: Porous-coated press-fit cementless collarless total hip replacements have a high complication rate. The majority of complications occur intra-operatively or perioperatively, with few complications occurring beyond 12 weeks postoperatively. Both fissure fractures and diaphyseal femoral fractures carry a favourable prognosis with immediate cerclage wiring and plate fixation, respectively.... S. W. Kidd (1), C. A. Preston (1), G. E. Moore (2) 26091 2016-07-21 11:27:41 Morphometric assessment of hip dysplasia in a cat treated by juvenile pubic symphysiodesis http://vcot.schattauer.de/t3page/1214.html?manuscript=26090 Objective: To quantitatively evaluate the change of the coxofemoral joints using computed tomography and distraction index in a cat with hip dysplasia treated by juvenile pubic symphysiodesis. Study Design: Case report. Animal: Eighteen-week-old female entire Maine Coon cat. Results: Juvenile pubic symphysiodesis resulted in changes in the distraction index, acetabular angle, dorsal acetabular rim angle, dorsal acetabular sector angle, and clinical improvement at the six month follow-up. No intra-operative or postoperative complications were recorded. Conclusions: Juvenile pubic symphysiodesis performed at 18 weeks of age resulted in improvement in hip joint conformation and hip laxity in a dysplastic cat. Clinical relevance: Juvenile pubic symphysiodesis may be a promising treatment for feline hip dysplasia and is a safe and technically simple procedure to perform. Further investigations are warranted. A. Lai (1), J. Culvenor (1), C. Bailey (1) 26090 2016-07-21 11:26:56 Evaluation of surface blood flow in intact and ruptured canine cruciate ligaments using laser... http://vcot.schattauer.de/t3page/1214.html?manuscript=26089 Objective: To evaluate the usefulness of laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) to measure surface blood flow in canine cruciate ligaments, compare measurements in different sites of intact and partially ruptured canine cranial cruciate ligaments (CrCL) and intact caudal cruciate ligaments (CaCL), and investigate any association between surface blood flow in partially ruptured CrCL and synovitis or duration of clinical signs. Study design: Case-controlled clinical study. Animals: Sixteen dogs with partially ruptured CrCL and five dogs with intact CrCL. Methods: Blood cell flux (BCF) readings during three measurement cycles using LDF at two sites in each ligament (mid-substance and the distal portion of the CrCL, and mid-substance and the proximal portion of the CaCL) were recorded. Synovial changes were graded grossly and histologically using the Osteoarthritis Research Society International histopathology scoring system. Results: The within-run coefficients of variation (CV) for a single BCF measurement cycle were 12.2% and 12.7% in the ruptured and intact CrCL groups, respectively. The between-run CV for three measurement cycles was 20.8% and 14.8%, respectively. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC, absolute agreement) was 0.66 for a single measurement cycle and 0.86 for the average of three cycles. No difference in average BCF readings was found between any two sites in either group, but BCF readings in both CrCL sites were significantly higher in the ruptured CrCL group than the intact CrCL group. No associations between BCF and synovial grades or duration of lameness were identified. Conclusions: Laser Doppler flowmetry can be used to assess surface blood flow in intact and partially ruptured canine cruciate ligaments with acceptable precision. Using this method, surface blood flow appears greater in partially ruptured canine CrCL than intact CrCL. Further studies are required to determine if this is a sequela of trauma or synovitis.... J. Testuz (1), J. Howard (1), A. Pozzi (2), U. Rytz (1), C. Krudewig (3), D. Spreng (1), S. Forterre (1) 26089 2016-07-21 11:25:36 Integrity of Science Publishing under Fire http://vcot.schattauer.de/t3page/1214.html?manuscript=26073 K. A. Johnson 26073 2016-07-19 09:56:11 Effects of two occlusive, hydrocolloid dressings on healing of full-thickness skin wounds in cats http://vcot.schattauer.de/t3page/1214.html?manuscript=25996 Objectives: To determine the effects of two occlusive, hydrocolloid dressings on second intention wound healing in cats. Methods: Three 2×2 cm full-thickness skin wounds were created on each side of the trunk of 10 cats. Two bilateral wounds were bandaged using different hydrocolloid dressings, namely Hydrocoll and DuoDerm while a semi-occlusive pad (Melolin) was applied to the third bilateral wound (control group). Wound planimetry, subjective evaluation of wound healing, and qualitative bacterial cultures were performed on the right-sided wounds, whereas left-sided wounds were subjected to histological examination. Results: Subjective evaluation revealed accelerated (p V. Tsioli (1), P. G. Gouletsou (2), A. D. Galatos (1), D. Psalla (3), A. Lymperis (1), L. G. Papazoglou (4), M. Karayannopoulou (4) 25996 2016-06-21 09:21:52 Evaluation of pain http://vcot.schattauer.de/t3page/1214.html?manuscript=25995 P. R. Manning (1) 25995 2016-06-21 09:20:40 Hemiepiphysiodesis for the correction of proximal tibial valgus in growing dogs http://vcot.schattauer.de/t3page/1214.html?manuscript=25893 Objectives: To describe the use of hemiepiphysiodesis for the treatment of proximal tibial deformities in immature dogs and evaluate the effect on the mechanical medial proximal tibial angle (mMPTA). Methods: Skeletally immature dogs with proximal tibial deformities from three institutions treated with hemiepiphysiodesis between March 2006 and January 2015 were included. All dogs were required to have an mMPTA outside the previously published reference range (93.3 ± 1.78°) preoperatively. Dogs were required to have radiographs or computed tomography performed preoperatively and at least eight weeks postoperatively. Results: A total of 19 dogs (n = 31 limbs) fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The mean mMPTA was 102.5° ± 5.3° preoperatively and 92.4° ± 7.2° at the final re-evaluation. The mean difference in mMPTA was -10 ± 5.1° (range, -1 to -19°; p A. M. Olsen (1), L. Vezzoni (2), A. Ferretti (3), R. H. Palmer (1), A. Vezzoni (2), F. Duerr (1) 25893 2016-06-01 12:42:16 The effect of lysophosphatidic acid using a hydrogel or collagen sponge carrier on bone healing in... http://vcot.schattauer.de/t3page/1214.html?manuscript=25892 Objectives: The purposes of this study were to determine: 1) the efficacy of polycaprolactone-g-polyethylene glycol (PCL-g-PEG) and polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA-g-PEG) hydrogels and an absorbable collagen sponge (ACS) as carriers for lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), 2) the effect of LPA on bone healing in dogs, and 3) the ideal dose of LPA to maximally stimulate bone healing. Methods: Bilateral ulnar ostectomies were performed on purpose bred dogs. Control defects were filled with a PCL-g-PEG or PLGA-g-PEG hydrogel, or a saline soaked ACS. Contralateral defects were filled with a PCL-g-PEG or PLGA-g-PEG hydrogel, or an ACS with each carrying differing concentrations of an LPA solution. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was performed. Total bone area (TBA), mineral density (BMD), and mineral content (BMC) were determined at each time point. Relationships between the effect of treatment over time on TBA, BMC and BMD were determined. Results: Phase 1 - There was no significant difference in DXA-based TBA (p = 0.09), BMC (p = 0.33), or BMD (p = 0.74) over time between LPA treatments, or between the LPA treated and control groups TBA (p = 0.95), BMC (p = 0.99), or BMD (p = 0.46). Phase 2 - There was no significant difference over time between LPA treatments in DXA-based TBA (p = 0.33), BMC (p = 0.45), or BMD (p = 0.43), or between the LPA treated and control groups TBA (p = 0.94), BMC (p = 0.38), or BMD (p = 0.17). Phase 3 - There was no significant difference over time between LPA treatments in DXA-based TBA (p = 0.78), BMC (p = 0.88), or BMD (p = 0.35), or between the LPA treated and control groups TBA (p = 0.07), BMC (p = 0.85), or BMD (p = 0.06). There was a significant increase in TBA (p... K. R. Might (1, 2), S. A. Martinez (1), N. Karin (3), G. Lin (4), B. Tarasevich (5), R. R. Pool (6) 25892 2016-06-01 12:06:20 Establishment of normal anatomical radial angles in cats http://vcot.schattauer.de/t3page/1214.html?manuscript=25891 Objectives: 1) To describe a radiographic method for determination of joint orientation lines and anatomical joint angles in orthogonal planes of feline radii; 2) to establish a range of normal radial joint orientation angles and anatomical axes in a feline population; and 3) to assess the repeatability and reliability of this methodology. Methods: The radial anatomical axis, elbow and carpal joint reference lines, and the intersecting angles of each: anatomical medial proximal (aMPRA) and lateral distal radial angles (aLDRA), anatomical caudal proximal (aCdPRA) and distal radial angles (aCdDRA), and sagittal procurvatum (SP) were determined on the orthogonal radiographs of 14 feline limbs. Intra- and inter-observer agreement was determined based on repeated independent readings by two observers using Bland-Altman plots. Results: The mean ± standard deviation (SD) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for the feline radii were: aMPRA 70.97 ± 3.38° (70.07 – 71.88°), aLDRA 91.72 ± 3.26° (90.84 – 92.59°), aCdPRA 100.5 ± 3.14° (99.62 – 101.3º), aCdDRA 79.95 ± 3.77° (78.94 – 80.96°) and SP 11.07 ± 1.87° (10.57 – 11.58°). The highest mean bias found for both observers was -1.6 to -1.8° for the angle aCdDRA. Sagittal procurvatum had the lowest mean bias for intra- and inter-observer. Clinical significance: The results obtained showed that the methodology used in our study was repeatable and reliable. The values established for the normal radial anatomical angles are relevant for future use as a reference for surgical treatment of angular deformities, malunions, non-unions, comminuted fractures, and future orthopaedic research.... B. De Lima Dantas (1, 2), A. Durand (1), T. Parkin (1), C. Broome (1) 25891 2016-06-01 12:01:54 Elevated synovial fluid concentration of adenosine triphosphate in dogs with osteoarthritis or... http://vcot.schattauer.de/t3page/1214.html?manuscript=25890 Adenosine triphosphate has been shown to stimulate nociceptive nerve terminals in joints. Elevated synovial fluid adenosine triphosphate concentrations as well as a correlation between synovial fluid adenosine triphosphate concentrations and osteoarthritic knee pain has been demonstrated in humans, but not yet in dogs. This study documented elevated synovial fluid adenosine triphosphate concentrations in the stifles of dogs with secondary osteoarthritis and urate-induced synovitis, as compared to normal stifles. B. T. Torres (1), D. A. Jimenez (2), S. C. Budsberg (3) 25890 2016-06-01 11:58:07 Effect of single dose radiation therapy on weight-bearing lameness in dogs with elbow osteoarthritis http://vcot.schattauer.de/t3page/1214.html?manuscript=25889 Objectives: To determine if a single low dose of radiation therapy in dogs with osteoarthritis of the elbow joint was associated with a detectable improvement in their lameness and pain as documented by force platform gait analysis. Methods: In this cohort longitudinal observational study, five Labrador Retrievers with lameness due to elbow osteoarthritis that was unresponsive to medical treatment were removed from all non-steroidal anti-inflammatory and analgesic medications. A single treatment of radiation therapy delivering 10 Gray was performed on the affected elbow joint(s). Force platform gait analysis was used to assess the ground reaction forces of a limb affected with elbow osteoarthritis both before and after radiation therapy. Results: Significant differences occurred in the weight-bearing on an affected limb with elbow osteoarthritis after radiation therapy at weeks six and 14. Change due to treatment was particularly apparent in dogs with unilateral elbow osteoarthritis. Clinical significance: Administering a single low dose of radiation therapy may have a short-term benefit in dogs with elbow osteoarthritis, which is similar to the evidence supporting the use of radiation therapy in horses with orthopaedic disease.... A. S. Kapatkin (1), B. Nordquist (2), T. C. Garcia (3), M. A. Griffin (4), A. Theon (1), S. Kim (5), K. Hayashi (6) 25889 2016-06-01 11:56:38 Comparison of open reduction versus minimally invasive surgical approaches on screw position in... http://vcot.schattauer.de/t3page/1214.html?manuscript=25846 Objective: To compare accuracy and consistency of sacral screw placement in canine pelves treated for sacroiliac luxation with open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) or minimally invasive osteosynthesis (MIO) techniques. Methods: Unilateral sacroiliac luxations created experimentally in canine cadavers were stabilized with an iliosacral lag screw applied via ORIF or MIO techniques (n = 10/group). Dorsoventral and craniocaudal screw angles were measured using computed tomography multiplanar reconstructions in transverse and dorsal planes, respectively. Ratios between pilot hole length and sacral width (PL/SW-R) were obtained. Data between groups were compared statistically (p L. M. Déjardin (1), D. M. Marturello (1), L. P. Guiot (2), R. P. Guillou (2), C. E. DeCamp (1) 25846 2016-05-18 14:19:20 Metallosis with pseudotumour formation: Long-term complication following cementless total hip... http://vcot.schattauer.de/t3page/1214.html?manuscript=25845 Case description: A 10-year-old female Belgian Teruven dog was presented to our clinic for total hip revision following a diagnosis of implant (cup) failure with metallosis and abdominal pseudotumour formation. The patient had a cementless metal-on-polyethylene total hip replacement performed nine years prior to presentation. Clinical findings: The clinical findings, including pseudotumour formation locally and at sites distant from the implant and pain associated with the joint replacement, were similar to those described in human patients with this condition. Histopathological, surgical, and radiographic findings additionally supported the diagnosis of metallosis and pseudotumour formation. Treatment and outcome: Distant site pseudotumours were surgically removed and the total hip replacement was explanted due to poor bone quality. The patient recovered uneventfully and has since resumed normal activity. Conclusion: In veterinary patients with metal-on-polyethylene total hip implants, cup failure leading to metallosis and pseudotumour formation should be considered as a potential cause of ipsilateral hindlimb lameness, intra-pelvic abdominal tumours, or a combination of both. These clinical findings may occur years after total hip replacement surgery.... N. J. Volstad (1), S. L. Schaefer (1), L. A. Snyder (2), J. B. Meinen (3), S. J. Sample (1) 25845 2016-05-18 14:18:36