Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology (VCOT) Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology (VCOT) vcot de-de Fri, 12 Feb 16 12:51:02 +0100 Ahead of print: A review of the cellular and molecular effects of extracorporeal shockwave therapy Extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT) is a novel therapeutic modality and its use in promoting connective tissue repair and analgesic effect has been advocated in the literature. It is convenient, cost-effective, and has negligible complications; it therefore bypasses many of the problems associated with surgical interventions. This paper reviews the proposed mechanisms of action in promoting tissue repair and regeneration as well as analysing its efficacy providing an analgesic effect in clinical applications. Further research will be required to not only identify the underlying mechanisms more precisely, but will also be critical for ensuring consistency across the literature so that the most beneficial treatment protocol can be developed. Extracorporeal shockwave therapy stands as a promising alternative modality in promoting tissue repair. G. A. Chamberlain (1), G. R. Colborne (2) 25510 2016-02-05 11:00:38 Ahead of print: Central tarsal bone fracture in a cat Fracture of the central tarsal bone is an uncommon injury in dogs and occurs predominantly in racing Greyhounds. To the authors’ knowledge, this type of fracture has not been described previously in cats. This case report describes a five-year-old Domestic Shorthair cat referred to the Centro Veterinario Luni Mare because of lameness, swelling and signs of pain in the right hindlimb caused by trauma. Clinical examination and diagnostic imaging revealed a right central tarsal bone fracture. Open reduction and internal fixation with a 2.0 mm position screw and two 0.8 mm Kirschner wires were carried out. The last follow-up examination three years postoperatively found the cat in good health with normal range of motion and function, and no signs of lameness in the right hindlimb. F. Cinti (1), G. Pisani (1), C. Penazzi (2), U. Carusi (1), L. Vezzoni (3), A. Vezzoni (3) 25509 2016-02-05 10:59:45 Ahead of print: Evaluation of a Veress needle for the fluid egress system of stifle arthroscopy in... Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of a Veress needle as a fluid egress system for stifle arthroscopy in toy dog breeds. Methods: Cadaveric canine stifle joints (n = 32) were prepared to induce an artificial intra-articular haemorrhagic effect, followed by stifle arthroscopy. The stifles were randomly assigned to one of three groups, and a fluid egress portal was established using a Veress needle (VN), a standard egress cannula (SE), or an intravenous catheter stylet (CS). Time to establish the egress portal, arthroscopic visibility, and egress portal performance were evaluated during the arthroscopy. After the arthroscopic examinations, iatrogenic cartilage lesions were identified and analysed using the percentage area of cartilage damage (%ACD). Results: The overall arthroscopic visibility and egress portal performance were not significantly different among the groups. The egress portal establishment was faster for the VN (33 sec) and the CS (34 sec) groups than for the SE (43 sec) group (p = 0.001). On gross joint examination, no iatrogenic laceration was found in the VN group, whereas four out of 10 of the SE and two out of 10 of the CS specimens had linear cartilage excoriation on the stifle joints. The %ACD score of the VN group was lower than those of the SE group (p = 0.009) and the CS group (p = 0.001). Clinical significance: The Veress needle method used in this study was useful to establish a fluid egress system and limit iatrogenic cartilage excoriations. This technique could become the method of choice for stifle arthroscopy, especially in smaller dogs.... J.-G. Cha (1), H. B. Lee (2), H.-Y. Cheong (1), S.-Y. Heo (1), G. R. Ragetly (3) 25508 2016-02-05 10:58:42 Ahead of print: Short and long-term outcome following surgical stabilization of tarsocrural... Objectives: To evaluate the outcome and complications following surgical stabilization of canine tarsocrural luxations. Methods: Medical records of dogs which were surgically treated for tarsocrural joint instability between February 2007 and June 2014 were reviewed. Surgical technique, complications and long-term outcome (via questionnaire and Canine Brief Pain Inventory) were assessed. Results: Twenty-four dogs (26 joints) were included. All injuries were traumatic. All joints had associated fractures; malleolar in 21/26 limbs (13/26 medial). Eight joints had internal fracture fixation and transarticular external skeletal fixator, six had external fixator alone, four had prosthetic ligaments with external fixator, and four had prosthetic ligaments with external coaptation. Two joints had pantarsal arthrodesis and two primary ligament repair. Complications occurred in 24/26 limbs giving 45 distinct complications; 16 were minor, 29 major, and 31 complications were external fixator associated. Prosthetic ligaments were significantly associated with major complications (p = 0.017); five out of eight required subsequent removal between 105–1006 days. Cost was significantly associated with major complications (p = 0.017) and soft tissue wounds (p = 0.03). Long-term lameness was seen in nine of 14 dogs. There was no association between pain severity (p = 0.3) and pain interference scores (p = 0.198) when comparing stabilization methods. Clinical significance: Complications are common; however many are external fixator related. Prosthetic ligaments are significantly associated with major complications. Regardless of technique, a degree of ongoing lameness is likely.... L. J. Beever (1), E. R. Kulendra (1), R. L. Meeson (1) 25507 2016-02-05 10:57:47 Ahead of print: Assessment of a computed tomography guided injection technique of the lumbo-sacral... Objectives: Recent data indicate that degeneration of intervertebral discs occurs naturally in sheep, with a higher prevalence at the level of the lumbo-sacral disc. The objective of this ex vivo study was to evaluate a computed tomography (CT) guided method of injection into the ovine lumbo-sacral disc. Methods: Six euthanatized sheep were used for identification of the approach plane, the optimal direction of the needle and the mean distance from skin to disc. Dissection after injection of coloured ink was used to determine the anatomical structures that were penetrated. In seven other animals, all spines were assessed beforehand by CT and magnetic resonance imaging to determine whether disc pathology was present. The final position of the needle was assessed by CT to determine the accuracy of the technique. Contrast agent was injected to identify any problems associated with administration of liquid into the disc. Results: The CT guided injection technique was easy to perform and enabled adequate positioning of the needle into all (n = 7) lumbo-sacral discs. Distance between the skin and the disc ranged between 12 and 17 cm. No organ, vascular or nervous structure was penetrated and the needle path remained intramuscular without penetration of the peritoneal cavity. Contrast medium leaked out through three degenerate discs. Clinical significance: The current study described a consistently safe and accurate CT guided injection technique to the lumbo-sacral disc for future in vivo experimental studies that will use sheep as animal model for human intervertebral disc disease disease.... F. Neveu (1, 2), J.-M. Vandeweerd (2), N. Kirschvink (2), K. Nozry (2), P. Gustin (1), A. Dugdale (3), B. Bihin (2), J.-F. Nisolle (4) 25506 2016-02-05 10:56:18 Ahead of print: Biomechanical evaluation of a non-locking pre-manufactured loop suture technique... Objective: The purpose of this cadaveric study was to compare the strength of a non-locking pre-manufactured loop (SpeedWhip™ [SW]) suture pattern using Fiberwire® with the three-loop pulley (TLP) suture pattern using polypropylene for the surgical repair of canine calcaneal tendon avulsion injuries. Methods: In vitro biomechanical study using 22 paired tendons collected from 11 canine cadavers. Paired tendons were repaired with either a SW suture pattern using Fiberloop® suture or a TLP suture pattern using polypropylene suture. Tensile loads required to create a 1 mm gap, 3 mm gap, and construct failure were measured. Results: The mean loads to achieve a 1 mm gap in the TLP and SW constructs were not significantly different. Gap formation at 3 mm occurred at significantly lower loads for the SW (106.4 ± 21.5N) than for the TLP (127.2 ± 27.5N) (p = 0.05). The mean loads to construct failure for the TLP (172.8 ± 39.4N) and SW (131.3 ± 34.3N) were significantly different (p = 0.001). Clinical significance: The TLP with polypropylene suture is superior to the SW using Fiberloop® at resistance to 3 mm gap formation.... A. E. Dunlap (1), S. E. Kim (1), W. T. McNicholas, Jr. (2) 25451 2016-01-25 13:33:46 Ahead of print: Percutaneous transilial pinning for treatment of seventh lumbar vertebral body... Objective: To evaluate outcomes after percutaneous application of transilial pinning in dogs with seventh lumbar vertebral body fracture with concurrent lumbosacral luxation. Methods: We reviewed the medical records of dogs with seventh lumbar vertebral body fracture stabilized with percutaneous transilial pinning that were treated at our hospital between January 2000 and March 2014. Radiographic measurements were used for comparing craniocaudal and ventrodorsal displacement pre- and postoperatively. Results: Seventeen dogs met the inclusion criteria. The neurological status of the majority of treated dogs improved quickly, with immediate pain reduction after surgery. Implants were well tolerated throughout the application period and were removed at a mean time of 54.4 ± 9.2 days. One dog experienced a major complication (implant failure) and required surgical revision a week after the initial procedure. Minor complications included pin-tract inflammation, signs of back pain lasting five weeks and acute lameness after implant removal. Postoperative radiographic measurements showed shortening of the vertebral body and residual dorsoventral dislocation. Otherwise, functional recovery was good (5 of 17 dogs) to excellent (10 of 17 dogs) in the majority of the patients. Clinical relevance: The use of two percutaneous transilial pins can be considered as treatment for the management of seventh lumbar fracture-luxation in dogs. Our modified stabilization technique is relatively easy to perform; less invasive on the soft tissues; and uses implants that are versatile, modifiable, and easily removable.... F. Di Dona (1), G. Della Valle (1), B. Lamagna (1), C. Balestriere (1), C. Murino (1), B. Santangelo (1), F. Lamagna (1), G. Fatone (1) 25450 2016-01-25 13:26:36 Ahead of print: Contralateral bone widening and transfer for limb sparing in a cat Objective: To report on a novel surgical procedure to treat a long segmental tibial defect in a five-year-old 5 kg spayed female Main Coon cat using transverse distraction osteogenesis in the contralateral tibia to create a free autograft. Methods: A long free bone segment was created from the cranial half of the normal tibia. A circular external fixator was constructed to give the segment 7 mm of cranial distraction. After 42 days the widened section of tibial bone was removed and transferred to the defect in the contralateral tibia. Locking plates were used to stabilize the graft and to protect the donor tibial sites. Results: By 27 months, both tibias were healed, all implants had been removed, function was excellent, and the overall limb length was 90% of the normal side. Clinical relevance: Compared with longitudinal distraction osteogenesis in long bone defects, transverse distraction of a normal bone requires a significantly shorter distraction distance to produce a similar amount of bone. Thus, distraction time is reduced, with less likelihood of significant soft tissue damage. New bone may be more reliably regenerated in a normal limb due to better tissue health, and native bone may be more readily incorporated than allografts in compromised sites. Disadvantages include the increased morbidity, as well as the risk and expense associated with involvement of a normal limb.... M. Petazzoni (1) 25449 2016-01-25 13:25:18 Ahead of print: Radial shock wave therapy in dogs with hip osteoarthritis Objective: The study aims were to evaluate the effects of radial shock wave therapy (RSWT) in dogs with hip osteoarthritis (OA) using clinical assessment and kinetic analysis. Methods: Thirty dogs diagnosed with bilateral hip OA and 30 healthy dogs were used. In OA dogs, one limb was randomly selected for treatment with RSWT while the contralateral limb served as an untreated control. Dogs were evaluated while walking on a pressure walkway. Peak vertical force (PVF) and vertical impulse (VI) were documented; symmetry index (SI) was also calculated. Blinded clinical evaluation was performed using a visual analogue scale (VAS). Owner perception data regarding levels of physical activity were also collected. The RSWT protocol (2000 pulses, 10 Hz, 2–3.4 bars) consisted of three weekly treatment sessions (days 1, 8 and 16). Follow-up data were collected 30, 60 and 90 days after the first session. Data were compared between time points, groups and limbs pairs. Results: At the end of the experimental period, mean PVF and VI values had increased (25.9 to 27.6%BW and 2.1 to 12.7%BW × s respectively) in treated limbs, with no significant differences in control limbs; SI values suggest improvement. Mean PVF and VI remained lower in the treated compared to the healthy group following treatment. The VAS scores suggested improvement in pain and lameness in treated dogs. Owner perception data suggested improved levels of physical activity following treatment. Conclusions and clinical significance: Outcomes of this study suggested beneficial effects of RSWT in dogs with hip osteoarthritis.... A. N. A. Souza (1), M. P. Ferreira (1), S. C. F. Hagen (1), G. C. F. Patrício (1), J. M. Matera (1) 25434 2016-01-20 08:52:26 Ahead of print: Early acetabular cartilage wear following hemiarthroplasty: An ovine model Objectives: Hemiarthroplasty induces degenerative changes in the hip joint, which are difficult to evaluate in vivo. Radiostereometric analysis (RSA) is a radiographic measurement technique that has recently been used to measure acetabular cartilage wear in vivo. The aim of the study was to measure acetabular cartilage wear, using this technique, in an ovine model during the first 14 weeks post-implantation. Methods: Measurements of three-dimensional femoral head migration, combined with visual assessments at necropsy and safranin O staining for cartilage integrity, were undertaken. Results: Mean femoral head migration during the first six weeks was 0.525 mm in the medial, 0.144 mm in the cranial, and 0.517 mm in the dorsal direction. The majority of this migration was confirmed to be cartilage wear in the medial and dorsal aspects of the acetabulum at necropsy and with subsequent histological evaluation depicting significant cartilage degeneration. Clinical significance: Radiostereometric analysis is the current gold standard technique for in vivo assessment of implant migration following total hip replacement. This study has utilized RSA to quantify the amount of early cartilage wear in vivo, which was supported by ex vivo evaluations. Accurately measuring the amount of cartilage wear will allow future studies to compare component material and design characteristics prior to clinical use.... J. R. Field (1), S. A. Callary (1), L. B. Solomon (1), R. Stamenkov (1), M. A. McGee (1), D. W. Howie (1) 25433 2016-01-20 08:50:55 Ahead of print: Femoral rotation unpredictably affects radiographic anatomical lateral distal... Objective: To describe the effects of internal and external femoral rotation on radiographic measurements of the anatomical lateral distal femoral angle (a-LDFA) using two methods for defining the anatomical proximal femoral axis (a-PFA). Methods: Digital radiographs were obtained of 14 right femora at five degree intervals from 10° external rotation to 10° internal rotation. Using freely available software, a-LDFA measurements were made using two different a-PFA by a single observer on one occasion. Results: Mean a-LDFA was significantly greater at 10° external rotation than at any other rotation. The response of individual femora to rotation was unpredictable, although fairly stable within ±5° of zero rotation. Mean a-LDFA for the two a-PFA methods differed by 1.5°, but were otherwise similarly affected by femoral rotation. Clinical significance: If zero femoral elevation can be achieved for radiography, a-LDFA measurements do not vary much with mild femoral rotation (±5°). Outside of this range, a-LDFA varies unpredictably with femoral rotation.... J. E. Miles (1) 25432 2016-01-20 08:49:56 Ahead of print: Implications of anticoagulants and gender on cell counts and growth factor... Objectives: Our objectives were as follows: 1) to validate a protocol for producing rabbit platelet-rich plasma (PRP); 2) to determine the influence of two anticoagulants, sodium citrate and acid-citrate-dextrose solution A, and gender on cell count in PRP and growth factor concentration in pure platelet-rich gel supernatants; 3) to correlate the variables evaluated. Methods: Whole blood from 18 New Zealand rabbits (9 males and 9 females) was obtained with sodium citrate and acid-citrate-dextrose solution A for processing PRP fractions (A and B), which were evaluated for haematology. The PRP fractions were either activated with calcium gluconate or lysated with a detergent. The concentrations of transforming growth factor beta 1 and platelet-derived growth factor BB were assayed by ELISA. Results: The sodium citrate PRP-B had significantly higher counts of platelets in comparison to PRP-A and whole blood obtained with the same anticoagulant and the homologous acid-citrate-dextrose solution A PRP fraction. The sodium citrate PRP-A had a significantly higher count of leukocytes compared to the homologous acid-citrate-dextrose solution A fraction. All the PRP fractions had a significant leuko-reduction when compared to whole blood. The sodium citrate PRP-A fraction from female rabbits had significantly lower platelet counts and significantly higher leukocyte counts than the same acid-citrate-dextrose solution A fraction. Growth factor concentration was not affected by the type of anticoagulant or gender. Clinical significance: The type of anticoagulant and gender affected the cell counts in PRP, but they did not influence the growth factor concentration. More complete rabbit PRP studies should be performed before evaluating this type of substance in models of disease.... J. C. González (1), C. López (1), J. U. Carmona (1) 25431 2016-01-20 08:48:47 2015 Resident Publication Award 25409 2016-01-13 14:27:31 Locked plate stabilization of problem fractures K. A. Johnson (1) 25408 2016-01-13 14:14:03 Evaluation of bone deformities of the femur, tibia, and patella in Toy Poodles with medial patellar... Objectives: To evaluate morphological parameters of the femur, tibia, and patella in Toy Poodles with medial patellar luxation (MPL) using three-dimensional (3D) computed tomography (CT) and to compare these parameters between radiography and CT. Methods: Thirty-five hindlimbs of Toy Poodles were divided into normal and grade 2 and 4 MPL groups. The anatomical and mechanical lateral proximal femoral angle, anatomical and mechanical lateral distal femoral angle (aLDFA, mLDFA), femoral varus angle (FVA), inclination of the femoral head angle, procurvation angle, anteversion angle (AA), frontal angle of the femoral neck, mechanical medial proximal or distal tibial angle, mechanical cranial proximal or distal tibial angle, tibial plateau angle, tibial torsion angle (TTA), Z angle, relative tibial tuberosity width, ratio of the medial distance of tibial tuberosity to the proximal tibial width (MDTT/PTW), patella size, and the patellar ligament length: patellar length (L:P) ratio were evaluated on radiography and 3D CT. Results: The aLDFA, mLDFA, FVA, and TTA were significantly larger and the AA, MDTT/PTW, and patella were significantly smaller in the grade 4 MPL group. There were significant differences in many parameters between imaging tools, and CT was considered less susceptible to potential artefacts and rotational deformities. Clinical significance: Toy Poodles with grade 4 MPL had significant femoral varus deformity, medial displacement of the tibial tuberosity, internal torsion of the proximal tibia, and hypoplasia of the patella.... S. Yasukawa (1), K. Edamura (1), K. Tanegashima (1), M. Seki (1), K. Teshima (1), K. Asano (1), T. Nakayama (2), K. Hayashi (3) 25309 2015-12-07 11:17:20 Flexor digitorum lateralis tendon transposition for the repair of bilateral calcaneal tendon rupture... Objective: To describe a novel technique utilizing the flexor digitorum lateralis tendon to repair rupture of the common calcaneal tendon with a gap defect. Clinical report: An eight-month-old male Domestic Shorthair cat with bilateral common calcaneal tendon rupture secondary to severe thermal injury underwent bilateral common calcaneal tendon repair performed in two stages. The first stage involved using the flexor digitorum lateralis tendon to reconstruct the common calcaneal tendon and a semitendinosus muscle flap for improved blood supply. A calcaneotibial screw was used for immobilization of the tarsocrural joint. The second surgery involved free skin grafting for complete wound closure. Twelve weeks after the calcaneotibial screws were placed, the calcaneotibial screws were removed and fibreglass splints were applied. The splints were removed after two weeks. Results: Full recovery took five months between the surgery and the final follow-up examination. The cat had a functional gait with no lameness and was able to jump to a height of approximately 75 cm. Clinical significance: Use of the flexor digitorum lateralis tendon may be considered for repair of a common calcaneal tendon rupture when a gap exists and traditional tendon lengthening techniques are not feasible.... H. K. Wong (1), A. M. Bush (1), D. E. Hoffmann (1) 25308 2015-12-07 11:16:12 Usefulness of multidetector computed tomography in the evaluation of spinal neuro-musculoskeletal... Spinal trauma is commonly diagnosed in small animal practice. Although the first approach to the patient with spinal trauma includes survey spinal radiographs, an accurate evaluation of the injury often requires advanced imaging. Multidetector computed tomography has revolutionized computed tomography technology, providing near-isotropic volumetric representation of the complete body with exquisite anatomical detail in a brief scan time. This review aims to discuss the technical background, indications, and limitations of multidetector computed tomography in the assessment of spinal trauma with particular reference to skeletal, muscular and nervous spinal components. M. Ricciardi (1) 25307 2015-12-07 11:15:03 Maquet and TTA technique combination for the treatment of cranial cruciate ligament rupture in dog D. R. C. Marques (1), J. F. Ibanez (2) 25244 2015-11-25 10:33:13 Metaphyseal osteopathy-like disease in two sibling kittens This report describes the diagnosis and treatment of a growth plate disturbance resembling canine metaphyseal osteopathy in two, two-month-old, sibling, intact, female Domestic Shorthair cats. Clinical signs and radiographic lesions resolved spontaneously after three months. Follow-up examination at six months of age showed complete recovery and no radiographic abnormalities. V. Pantaleo (1), P. D’Ettorre (1), M. Caldin (1), A. Vezzoni (2) 25243 2015-11-25 10:32:36 Observations of sacrocaudal fusion in Greyhounds and other dogs Objectives: To describe the incidence and forms of nonpathological sacrocaudal fusion in racing Greyhounds and compare them with those in a variety of other domestic dog breeds. Methods: This retrospective observational study used archived anatomical specimens from 81 racing Greyhounds and 10 Beagles, and archived clinical radiographs from 81 non-Greyhound dogs representing 37 other breeds. Dogs less than two years of age and dogs with evidence of soft tissue or osseous pathology involving the sacrocaudal region were excluded. The incidence of osseous sacrocaudal fusion (any type and complete fusion) was compared between Greyhounds and all of the other dogs combined, using the Fisher's exact test. Results: Sacrocaudal fusion of some type was found in 33 (41%) of 81 Greyhounds but in only 14 (15%) of 91 non-Greyhound dogs (p A. H. Oheida (1, 2), C. J. Philip (2), H.-H. Yen (2), H. M. S. Davies (2) 25242 2015-11-25 10:31:28 Assessment of canine autologous platelet-rich plasma produced with a commercial centrifugation and... Objectives: To characterize the cellular composition (platelets, erythrocytes, and leukocytes) and confirm reproducibility of platelet enrichment, as well as determine the platelet activation status in the final product of a commercial platelet-rich plasma kit using canine blood. Methods: Venous blood from 20 sedated client-owned dogs was used to prepare platelet-rich plasma (PRP) from a commercial kit. Complete blood counts were performed to determine erythrocyte, leukocyte, and platelet numbers in both whole blood (WB) and resultant PRP. The WB and PRP samples from jugular (fast collection) and cephalic (slow collection) venipuncture were also compared. P-selectin externalization was measured in WB and PRP samples from 15 of 20 dogs. Results: This commercial kit produced an average percent recovery in platelets of 64.7 ± 17.4; erythrocytes of 3.7 ± 0.8, and leukocytes of 31.6 ± 10.0. Neutrophil, monocyte, and lymphocyte percent recovery was 19.6 ± 7.2, 44.89 ± 19.8, and 57.5 ± 10.6, respectively. The recovery of platelets from jugular venipuncture (59.7 ± 13.6%) was lower than from cephalic recovery (68.8 ± 19.1%). The mean percent P-Selectin externalization for WB, PRP, and PRP with thrombin was 25.5 ± 30.9, 4.5 ± 6.4, and 90.6 ± 4.4 respectively. Clinical Significance: Cellular reproducibility of this kit was confirmed and platelets were concentrated within autologous serum. Additionally, measurements of P-selectin externalization showed that platelets are inactive in PRP unless stimulated to degranulate.... C. W. Frye (1), A. Enders (1), M. B. Brooks (2), A. M. Struble (1), J. J. Wakshlag (1) 25241 2015-11-25 10:30:48 Hitting the Front Cover K. A. Johnson 25191 2015-11-16 10:42:43 Analysis of pelvic rotation on the standard hip ventrodorsal extended radiographic view Objectives: To study the symmetry of the iliac horizontal diameter (IHD) maximum obturator foramen width (OFW), ischiatic femoral overlap (IFO), pelvic horizontal radius (PHR), femoral head diameter (FHD), and obturator foramen area (OFA) parameters in the normal hip extended radiographic view and to evaluate the correlation of pelvic rotation with the magnitude of asymmetry of these parameters. Methods: Nine canine cadavers from adult, large and giant breeds were radiographed in standard hip extended views and with 2°, 4° and 6° degrees of rotation. The variables IHD, OFW, IFO, PHR, FHD, and OFA were analysed in radiographs. Results: The IHD measurements exhibited repeatability, bilateral symmetry and 95% of confidence interval of asymmetry in different pelvic rotations without superposition (p  J. Martins (1), B. J. Colaço (1, 2), A. J. Ferreira (3), M. M. Ginja (1, 4) 25178 2015-11-09 10:42:48 Magnetic resonance imaging assisted management in five cases of suspected quittor Objectives: Assessment of the usefulness of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in treatment planning in suspected cases of quittor in the horse. Methods: Five horses with chronic discharging tracts at the level of the foot underwent MRI for treatment planning. Results: The MRI examination revealed variable involvement of soft tissue and osseous structures of the foot in addition to abnormalities of the ungular cartilages in all cases. In two cases, follow-up MRI examination was performed. Four of five horses had a successful outcome, with three of these undergoing only one surgical procedure and one being managed medically. Clinical significance: We believe that the use of preoperative MRI facilitated accurate determination of the structures involved in cases of quittor, guiding the management, surgical approach and postoperative therapy. L. J. Meehan (1), S. E. Taylor (1), R. Labens (1), E. Cillán-García (1) 25177 2015-11-09 10:41:40 A response to “Comments on torsional testing” H. P. Aithal (1), S. K. Tyagi (1), P. Kinjavdekar (1), Amarpal (1), A. M. Pawde (1), T. Srivastava (1), J. Singh (1), D. N. Madhu (1) 25151 2015-10-29 10:21:29