Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology (VCOT) Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology (VCOT) vcot de-de http://www.schattauer.de/rss.html Mon, 02 May 16 10:11:22 +0200 http://www.schattauer.de/fileadmin/assets/zeitschriften/vcot/rss_vcot.jpg Ahead of print: Validity and repeatability of goniometry in normal horses http://vcot.schattauer.de/t3page/1214.html?manuscript=25810 Purpose: To assess validity and inter- and intra-tester reliability of equine goniometry and to establish values for carpal, metacarpophalangeal, tarsal, and metatarsophalangeal flexion and extension in horses. Subjects: Seventeen healthy equine subjects of varied breeds were used. Methods: Three investigators blindly and independently measured in triplicate the extension and flexion of carpal, metacarpophalangeal, tarsal, and metatarsophalangeal joints of 17 horses after sedation. Radiographs of these joints in flexion and extension were acquired while under sedation. Goniometric and radiographic measurements were compared statistically and were correlated. A Bland-Altman plot was constructed. Inter- and intra-tester repeatability of goniometry were evaluated by calculating intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC). Mean flexion and extension of carpal, metacarpophalangeal, tarsal, and metatarsophalangeal joints were calculated. Results: Goniometric and radiographic measurements did not differ statistically and were significantly correlated (correlation coefficients ranged from 0.59 - 0.89). The mean difference between goniometric and radiographic measurements was 0.4°. Triplicate measurements collected by the three raters did not differ significantly within raters (ICC ranging from 0.950 - 0.995) and between raters (ICC ranging from 0.942 - 0.989). Conclusion: Goniometry is a valid and repeatable tool for evaluation of the range of motion of carpal, metacarpophalangeal, tarsal, and metatarsophalangeal joints in standing, sedated healthy horses.... H. S. Adair, III (1), D. J. Marcellin-Little (2), D. Levine (3) 25810 2016-04-28 14:39:27 Ahead of print: Short term comparison of tibial tuberosity advancement and tibial plateau levelling... http://vcot.schattauer.de/t3page/1214.html?manuscript=25809 Objectives: This study set out to compare the outcomes of tibial tuberosity advancement (TTA) and tibial plateau levelling osteotomy (TPLO) procedures in the treatment of dogs affected with unilateral cranial cruciate ligament disease (CCLD) based on subjective parameters and objective pressure platform analysis (baropodometry). Methods: Twenty-seven adult dogs weighing over 20 kg that were presented with unilateral CCLD and were treated by the TTA (12 dogs) or TPLO (15 dogs) surgical procedure. Patient allocation to either group was based on tibial plateau angle (TPA), according to clinical guidelines (indication for TTA for dogs was a TPA up to 25°, and indication for TPLO was any TPA). Pressure platform analysis was performed prior to surgery and at four different postoperative time points (14, 30, 60 and 90 days). Results: Limb function significantly improved following TTA and TPLO, with no significant differences between groups. Conclusion: The TTA and TPLO surgical procedures were considered to be equally effective in promoting weight bearing capacity recovery in dogs affected with unilateral CCLD under the conditions of this trial.... M. P. Ferreira (1), C. R. A. Ferrigno (2), A. N. A. de Souza (2), D. F. I. Caquias (3), A. V. de Figueiredo (1) 25809 2016-04-28 14:36:41 Ahead of print: Musculoskeletal modelling in dogs: challenges and future perspectives http://vcot.schattauer.de/t3page/1214.html?manuscript=25786 Musculoskeletal models have proven to be a valuable tool in human orthopaedics research. Recently, veterinary research started taking an interest in the computer modelling approach to understand the forces acting upon the canine musculoskeletal system. While many of the methods employed in human musculoskeletal models can applied to canine musculoskeletal models, not all techniques are applicable. This review summarizes the important parameters necessary for modelling, as well as the techniques employed in human musculoskeletal models and the limitations in transferring techniques to canine modelling research. The major challenges in future canine modelling research are likely to centre around devising alternative techniques for obtaining maximal voluntary contractions, as well as finding scaling factors to adapt a generalized canine musculoskeletal model to represent specific breeds and subjects. B. Dries (1), I. Jonkers (2), W. Dingemanse (1), B. Vanwanseele (2), J. Vander Sloten (3), H. van Bree (1), I. Gielen (1) 25786 2016-04-22 09:35:18 Ahead of print: Traumatic fracture of the medial coronoid process in 24 dogs http://vcot.schattauer.de/t3page/1214.html?manuscript=25785 Objective: To describe traumatic fracture of the medial coronoid process in dogs as a clinically distinct disease unrelated to congenital elbow dysplasia. Methods: Clinical records of dogs with acute, traumatic, unilateral lameness attributable to medial coronoid process disease were reviewed retrospectively. Clinical interpretation included findings on physical examination, orthopaedic examination, and subjective gait analysis. Radiographs of the affected and contralateral elbows were obtained and reviewed for pathology. Arthroscopy of the elbow joints was performed by one of three surgeons and findings were compared to preoperative diagnostics. Postoperative follow-up was continued for 16 weeks. Results: Twenty-four dogs were included in this study. All dogs in this study were free of radiographic evidence of medial coronoid pathology. All dogs were diagnosed with a single, large, displaced or non-displaced fracture of the medial coronoid process, with no other joint pathology. Dogs generally had an excellent short-term outcome following arthroscopic treatment of the fractured medial coronoid process. Clinical significance: Traumatic fracture of the medial coronoid process should be considered a clinical disease distinct from dysplasia-related fragmentation and should be considered as a differential diagnosis in dogs that are presented with the complaint of acute unilateral elbow discomfort or lameness, especially after concussive activities involving the forelimb. ... D. K. Tan (1), S. O. Canapp Jr. (1), C. S. Leasure (1), D. L. Dycus (1), E. O'Donnell (1) 25785 2016-04-22 09:33:40 Ahead of print: Bilateral tibial agenesis and syndactyly in a cat http://vcot.schattauer.de/t3page/1214.html?manuscript=25784 Case description: A three-year-old cat was referred to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, University of Naples, Italy. The cat had severe pelvic limb deformity, and abnormal development of all four paws. Clinical findings: Radiographs revealed bilateral tibial agenesis, syndactyly, and digital hypoplasia. Treatment and outcome: No treatment was instituted because of the severity of the injury, the adaptation of the cat to the abnormal condition, and the owner's refusal to permit any treatment. Clinical relevance: Congenital limb deformities are rarely reported in the cat and tibial agenesis is considered a very rare disease. This congenital anomaly is well documented and classified in man, and it has been associated with other abnormalities in more complex syndromes. This paper reports clinical and radiographic findings in a cat affected by bilateral complete tibial agenesis associated with other congenital anomalies. F. Di Dona (1), C. Murino (1), G. Della Valle (1), G. Fatone (1) 25784 2016-04-22 09:32:34 Ahead of print: Evaluation of a silver-impregnated coating to inhibit colonization of orthopaedic... http://vcot.schattauer.de/t3page/1214.html?manuscript=25783 Objectives: To evaluate the in vitro antibacterial activity of a silver-impregnated coating against a biofilm-forming strain of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP). Methods: A clinical MRSP isolate sourced from a failed canine knee implant was evaluated for biofilm production and used in the present study. Using a standard test method and a clinically approved titanium substrate, the antimicrobial activity of a novel silver plasma coating was determined at two times: five minutes after inoculation of the specimens (T0) and after 24 hours of incubation (T24). Scanning electron microscopy was used to evaluate the biofilm formation on specimens. Results: The tested clinical MRSP isolate was classified as a strong biofilm producer. The silver coating significantly reduced the MRSP growth more than four log steps compared to the non-coated specimens and showed more than 99.98% reduction in the number of colony forming units after 24 hours. Scanning electron microscopy images revealed that silver-coated surfaces did not manifest detectable biofilm, while biofilm formation was readily observed on the control specimens. Clinical significance: The silver coating exhibited excellent activity against the multidrug resistant biofilm-forming MRSP isolate. The next stage of this work will involve testing in an animal model of orthopaedic infection. Positive results from animal studies would support the introduction of the silver plasma coating as a new strategy for preventing implant contamination, biofilm formation, and surgical infection in dogs undergoing orthopaedic surgery.... M. A. Azab (1, 2), M. J. Allen (1, 3), J. B. Daniels (1) 25783 2016-04-22 09:31:07 Ahead of print: Arthrodesis of the equine centrodistal and tarsometatarsal joints using a single... http://vcot.schattauer.de/t3page/1214.html?manuscript=25739 Objectives: To describe a technique for surgical placement of modified kerf-cut cylinder for the purpose of arthrodesis across the equine centrodistal and tarsometatarsal joints. Methods: Each horse (n = 4) underwent unilateral placement of a single kerf-cut cylinder spanning the centrodistal and tarsometatarsal joints with the placement of an autologous cancellous bone graft. Horses were evaluated via lameness examination and radiography postoperatively and euthanatization of each horse was performed at four different time points up to 12 weeks post-surgery to evaluate for lameness, implant stability and success with integration in the surrounding bone. Results: Implants were placed successfully in three of four horses. In one horse, due to technical error, the implant was misaligned with the joint spaces. Although the horse exhibited minimal pain, it was euthanatized at the two week follow-up. Implant placement in the remaining three horses was successfully achieved. At eight weeks, radiographically there was evidence of osseous union across the joint spaces. No change in lameness was detected at any point after surgery. At 12 weeks post-surgery, histologically the implants were filled with mineralized osteoid and demonstrated integration with the surrounding tissue. Clinical significance: The surgical approach and placement of modified kerf-cut cylinders for arthrodesis of the centrodistal and tarsometatarsal joints were successfully achieved with minimal signs of postoperative pain and a short rehabilitation time period in normal horses.... A. H. Biedrzycki (1), B. D. Grant (2), B. Nemke (3), M. D. Markel (3), S. L. Morello (3) 25739 2016-04-12 14:35:27 Ahead of print: Management of traumatic tarsal luxations with transarticular external fixation in... http://vcot.schattauer.de/t3page/1214.html?manuscript=25738 Objective: To report our experience with the use of contoured mini circular transarticular external skeletal fixators for the management of traumatic tarsal luxations in 15 cats. Materials and methods: Fifteen cats with traumatic tarsal joint luxation treated by using mini circular transarticular external fixators with available clinical records and complete clinical and radiographic follow-up of at least 30 weeks duration were included in the study. Data collected were the signalment, history, type of injury, concomitant injury, frame configuration, stabilization technique, duration of the surgery, time to first use of the operated limb, fixator removal time, complications, final outcome and follow-up. Results: The surgical procedure chosen was based on the type of luxation; partial tarsal arthrodesis was performed in 10 cases, tarso-crural stabilization in four cases, and pantarsal arthrodesis in three cases. Five cats started to use the operated limb immediately after recovering from anaesthesia. In the other 10 cats, time to first use ranged from one to four days (mean 2 days). In one case, early pin loosening due to half pin fixation bolt failure was observed as a postoperative complication. Fixator removal time ranged from 24 to 60 days (mean 45 days). Functional outcome was excellent in 15 cats and good in two. Clinical relevance: This is a preliminary report about the treatment of tarsal luxations with a mini circular transarticular external fixation system in which early postoperative and long-term results seem to be favourable.... C. Yardımcı (1), A. Özak (1), T. Önyay (1), K. S. İnal (1) 25738 2016-04-12 14:28:03 Ahead of print: Influence of chondrodystrophy and brachycephaly on geometry of the humerus in dogs http://vcot.schattauer.de/t3page/1214.html?manuscript=25737 Objective: To assess the geometry of canine humeri as seen on radiographs in chondrodystrophic dogs (CD) and brachycephalic dogs (BD) compared to non-chondrodystrophic dogs (NCD). Methods: Mediolateral (ML) and craniocaudal (CC) radiographs of skeletally mature humeri were used (CD [n = 5], BD [n = 9], NCD [n = 48]) to evaluate general dimensions (length, width, canal flare, cortical thickness), curvature (shaft, humeral head, and glenoid), and angulation (humeral head and condyle). Measurements from CD, BD, and NCD were compared. Results: Mean humeral length was shorter in CD (108 mm) compared to BD (184 mm, p = 0.001) and NCD (183 mm, p E. J. Smith (1), D. J. Marcellin-Little (2), O. L. A. Harrysson (3), E. H. Griffith (4) 25737 2016-04-12 14:27:09 Ahead of print: Fixation of supraglenoid tubercle fractures using distal femoral locking plates in... http://vcot.schattauer.de/t3page/1214.html?manuscript=25727 Three horses that were presented with supraglenoid tubercle fractures were treated with open reduction and internal fixation using distal femoral locking plates (DFLP). Placing the DFLP caudal to the scapular spine in order to preserve the suprascapular nerve led to a stable fixation, however, it resulted in infraspinatus muscle atrophy and mild scapulohumeral joint instability (case 1). Placing the DFLP cranial to the scapular spine and under the suprascapular nerve resulted in a stable fixation, however, it resulted in severe atrophy of the supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscles and scapulohumeral joint instability (case 2). Placing the DFLP cranial to the scapular spine and slightly overbending it at the suprascapular nerve passage site resulted in the best outcome (case 3). Only a mild degree of supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscle atrophy was apparent, which resolved quickly and with no effect on scapulohumeral joint stability. In all cases, fixation of supraglenoid tubercle fractures using DFLP in slightly different techniques led to stable fixations with good long-term outcome. One case suffered from a mild incisional infection and plates were removed in two horses. Placement of the DFLP cranial to the scapular spine and slightly overbending it at the suprascapular nerve passage prevented major nerve damage. Further cases investigating the degree of muscle atrophy following the use of the DFLP placed in the above-described technique are justified to improve patient outcome.... S. Frei (1), A. E. Fürst (1), M. Sacks (2), A. S. Bischofberger (1) 25727 2016-04-12 13:15:26 Ahead of print: Dislocation of a dual mobility total hip replacement following fracture of the... http://vcot.schattauer.de/t3page/1214.html?manuscript=25662 An eight-year-old male English Setter was referred for management of a dislocation of a cemented dual mobility canine total hip prosthesis that occurred four months after the initial surgery. Revision surgery showed that the dislocation was associated with fracture of the ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene liner. The dislocation was successfully reduced after replacing the liner. A dual mobility acetabular component is composed of a mobile polyethylene liner inside a metallic cemented cup. Chronic wear of the components of a canine dual mobility total hip replacement has not been described previously. The use of this type of implant is fairly recent and limited long term follow-up of the implanted cases may be the explanation. Acute rupture of a polyethylene liner has never been described in humans, the only case of rupture of a polyethylene liner occurred 10 years after implantation. The case presented here of rupture of the polyethylene liner of a dual mobility total hip replacement is a hitherto unreported failure mode in this model of acetabular cup in the dog.... B. Vedrine (1), P. Guillaumot (2), J.-L. Chancrin (2) 25662 2016-03-18 14:14:24 Ahead of print: Mineralization of the transverse ligament of the atlas causing compressive... http://vcot.schattauer.de/t3page/1214.html?manuscript=25661 Objective: To describe a case of a Boxer dog with radiculopathy due to mineralization of the transverse ligament of the atlas and subsequent resorption and resolution of clinical signs after atlantoaxial arthrodesis and odontoidectomy. Case report: A five-year-old neutered female Boxer dog was presented with a four-month history of cervical hyperaesthesia refractory to medical management. Neurological examination and magnetic resonance imaging indicated a diagnosis of radiculopathy due to cervical nerve root impingement by dystrophic mineralization of the transverse ligament of the atlas. Odontoidectomy was performed by a ventral approach and atlantoaxial arthrodesis was achieved with a ventral composite polymethylmethacrylate and pin fixation. Results: Atlantoaxial arthrodesis and progressive resorption of the mineralization following stabilization facilitated indirect decompression. The radioclinical diagnosis and response to arthrodesis was considered analogous to retro-odontoid pannus in the human. Clinical relevance: A clinical condition similar to retro-odontoid pannus may exist in the canine and may be amenable to atlantoaxial arthrodesis.... L. C. Hamilton (1), C. Driver (1), A. Tauro (1), G. Campbell (1), N. Fitzpatrick (1) 25661 2016-03-18 14:13:38 Ahead of print: Kinetic and kinematic gait analysis in the pelvic limbs of normal and... http://vcot.schattauer.de/t3page/1214.html?manuscript=25660 Objective: To compare pelvic limb kinetic and kinematic gait parameters between Dachshunds six months following hemilaminectomy for treatment of thoracolumbar disc extrusion (post-hemilaminectomy; PHL) and Dachshunds without history and clinical evidence of spinal cord disease (control; CON). Methods: The CON (n = 8) and PHL (n = 6) Dachshunds were recruited for objective gait evaluation. Kinetic data collected included peak vertical force (PVF), stance phase duration and swing phase duration. Kinematic data collected included tarsal, stifle and hip range of motion (ROM) during stance and swing phases of the trot, tail ROM, and horizontal and vertical components of pelvis ROM. Results: No significant differences were identified between tarsal, stifle, hip, and tail ROM between CON and PHL Dachshunds. Although PVF was not significantly different between CON and PHL Dachshunds, PVF varied on average by 14% between the pelvic limbs in PHL Dachshunds (p <0.01). Horizontal and vertical components of pelvic ROM were on average 51% and 36% greater in PHL Dachshunds compared to CON Dachshunds (p = 0.04 and p = 0.02 respectively). Clinical significance: Six months after decompressive hemilaminectomy Dachshunds have abnormal pelvic motion and asymmetric pelvic limb weight bearing. Pelvic sway (ROM) may be a more sensitive indicator of myelopathy than pelvic limb joint ROM and may serve as a useful objective tool to characterize response to treatment in patients with spinal cord disease.... J. S. Sutton (1), T. C. Garcia (2), S. M. Stover (2), B. K. Sturges (1), M. O’Donnell (1), A. S. Kapatkin (1) 25660 2016-03-18 14:12:42 Veterinary Orthopedic Society 43rd Annual Conference Abstracts http://vcot.schattauer.de/t3page/1214.html?manuscript=25659 25659 2016-03-18 13:09:51 Connectivity to the ‘four corners of the world’ http://vcot.schattauer.de/t3page/1214.html?manuscript=25658 K. A. Johnson (1) 25658 2016-03-18 12:56:09 Ahead of print: Cement plug technique for the management of disc-associated cervical spondylopathy... http://vcot.schattauer.de/t3page/1214.html?manuscript=25649 Objectives: To report the radiographic and clinical outcome of an intervertebral bone cement plug technique for the management of disc-associated cervical spondylopathy in Dobermann Pinscher dogs. Methods: Retrospective study of 52 Dobermann Pinscher dogs. Results: A variable degree of cement plug subsidence with loss of vertebral distraction was evident in all dogs (n = 40) that were radiographed >6 weeks postoperatively. In no case was there definitive evidence of vertebral body fusion. Eight dogs had a sudden deterioration in neurological status, cervical hyperaesthesia, or both between three days and 12 weeks following surgery that was considered to be implant-associated; six of these dogs were euthanatized. Following surgery 43/52 dogs were considered to be neurologically normal or to have improved, however, nine of 43 subsequently deteriorated due to adjacent segment disease. At long-term follow-up 34 dogs were considered to be neurologically normal or to have improved. Twenty-nine dogs were dead by the end of the study period. Clinical significance: Intervertebral bone cement plug surgery results in an initial improvement in clinical signs in the majority of Dobermann Pinschers with disc-associated cervical spondylopathy. However, it fails to maintain vertebral distraction or achieve vertebral body fusion, and is associated with acute implant complications, additional cervical disc protrusions or mortality in a significant proportion of cases.... W. M. McKee (1), J. J. Pink (1), T. J. Gemmill (1) 25649 2016-03-11 10:30:03 Ahead of print: Salter-Harris type II metacarpal and metatarsal fracture in three foals http://vcot.schattauer.de/t3page/1214.html?manuscript=25648 Objectives: To describe minimally-invasive lag screw osteosynthesis combined with external coaptation for the treatment of Salter-Harris type II third metacarpal and third metatarsal bone fractures. Methods: Three foals aged two weeks to four months with a Salter-Harris type II third metacarpal or third metatarsal fracture. Surgery was carried out under general anaesthesia in lateral recumbency. After fracture reduction, the metaphyseal fragment was stabilized with two cortical screws placed in lag fashion under fluoroscopic control. A cast was applied for at least two weeks. Results: All foals had a good outcome with complete fracture healing and return to complete soundness without any angular limb deformity. All foals had moderate transient digital hyperextension after cast removal. Clinical significance: Internal fixation of Salter-Harris type II third metacarpal or third metatarsal fractures with two cortical screws in lag fashion, combined with external coaptation provided good stabilization and preserved the longitudinal growth potential of the injured physis.... M. D. Klopfenstein Bregger (1, 2), A. E. Fürst (1), P. R. Kircher (3), K. Kluge (4), M. Kummer (1) 25648 2016-03-11 10:29:14 Ahead of print: What is your diagnosis? Acute non-weight bearing pelvic limb lameness in a dog http://vcot.schattauer.de/t3page/1214.html?manuscript=25647 A. Ievins (1), S. Langley-Hobbs (1), V. Barberet (1), N. Granger (1) 25647 2016-03-11 10:25:48 Intra-articular implantation of gentamicin impregnated collagen sponge causes joint inflammation and... http://vcot.schattauer.de/t3page/1214.html?manuscript=25575 Objective: Gentamicin impregnated collagen sponge (GICS) can be used to treat intra-articular surgical site infections. High local concentrations of gentamicin can be reached for short periods; however the collagen vehicle may persist for much longer periods. We wished to determine the effect of sponge implantation on joint inflammation and renal function. Methods: Eighteen medium sized mixed breed research dogs of hound type were randomized to two groups; arthroscopic implantation of GICS at gentamicin dose = 6 mg/kg (n = 9) or sham operation (n = 9). Endpoints consisted of joint inflammation measured by synovial fluid cell counts and cytokine concentrations; lameness measured by force plate asymmetry indices; and renal function measured by glomerular filtration rate (GFR) study. The prevalence of lesions associated with aminoglycoside nephrotoxicity was assessed by renal biopsy and transmission electron microscopy. Results: Gentamicin impregnated collagen sponge implantation caused joint inflammation (p... G. Hayes (1), T. Gibson (2), N. M. M. Moens (2), S. Nykamp (2), D. Wood (2), R. Foster (2), A. Lerer (2) 25575 2016-02-22 11:40:02 Ahead of print: Comparison of goniometric measurements of the stifle joint in seven breeds of normal... http://vcot.schattauer.de/t3page/1214.html?manuscript=25574 Objective: To compare the goniometric measurements of the stifle joint in seven dog breeds, and to determine the relationship among goniometric measurements, age, body weight, tibial plateau angle, crus and thigh circumferences, and widths of quadriceps, hamstring, and gastrocnemius muscles in healthy dogs. Methods: We used a total of 126 dogs from seven different breeds, and recorded the angle of the stifle joint at standing, extension, and flexion together with the range of motion (ROM). The circumferences of the thigh and crus were also measured. Mediolateral radiographic projections of the tibia and the femur were obtained from the dogs, and the tibial plateau angles, as well as the widths of quadriceps, hamstring, and gastrocnemius muscles, were measured from these images. Results: Neither the sex of the dog nor the differences in the side measured affected the goniometric measurements of the stifle joint. The standing, extension, flexion, and ROM angles were different among the breeds. The standard deviations of the standing and extension angles were small relative to their means, but the standard deviations of the flexion angle were large relative to their means in all breeds. Body weight and muscular measurements were the most influential factors on the stifle flexion angle and ROM. Clinical significance: Breed differences, body weights, and muscle mass should be taken into consideration during assessment of the stifle function using goniometric measurements.... S. S. Sabanci (1), M. K. Ocal (2) 25574 2016-02-22 11:38:56 Ahead of print: Computed tomographic arthrography of the normal dromedary camel carpus http://vcot.schattauer.de/t3page/1214.html?manuscript=25573 The aim of this prospective cadaveric study was to provide a detailed computed tomographic (CT) reference of the carpal joint in healthy dromedary camels. Twelve forelimbs of six apparently healthy camels were used. Computed tomographic imaging of 12 normal cadaveric camel carpal joints was performed before and after intra-articular administration of iodinated contrast medium. Transverse CT images were reconstructed in dorsal and parasagittal planes. The six carpal bones, the radial trochlea, and the proximal articular surface of the metacarpal bones were clearly visible on CT images with the bone setting window. Radiocarpal, carpometacarpal, transverse intercarpal, medial and lateral palmer intercarpal, middle intercarpal, accessory carpoulnar and medial and lateral collateral ligaments, carpal canal, joint capsule, and the extensor and flexor tendons were identified on CT images with the soft-tissue setting window. Postcontrast CT images provided better delineation of intercarpal ligaments, the capsular compartments and recesses. Results indicated that the osseous and the clinically important soft tissue structures of the dromedary camel carpal joint could be identified using CT and CT arthrography. The CT data of this study will serve as a basis for diagnosis of carpal problems in camels.... A. M. Badawy (1), M. A. Marzok (2), E. A. Eshra (3) 25573 2016-02-22 11:35:51 A review of the cellular and molecular effects of extracorporeal shockwave therapy http://vcot.schattauer.de/t3page/1214.html?manuscript=25510 Extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT) is a novel therapeutic modality and its use in promoting connective tissue repair and analgesic effect has been advocated in the literature. It is convenient, cost-effective, and has negligible complications; it therefore bypasses many of the problems associated with surgical interventions. This paper reviews the proposed mechanisms of action in promoting tissue repair and regeneration as well as analysing its efficacy providing an analgesic effect in clinical applications. Further research will be required to not only identify the underlying mechanisms more precisely, but will also be critical for ensuring consistency across the literature so that the most beneficial treatment protocol can be developed. Extracorporeal shockwave therapy stands as a promising alternative modality in promoting tissue repair. G. A. Chamberlain (1), G. R. Colborne (2) 25510 2016-02-05 11:00:38 Central tarsal bone fracture in a cat http://vcot.schattauer.de/t3page/1214.html?manuscript=25509 Fracture of the central tarsal bone is an uncommon injury in dogs and occurs predominantly in racing Greyhounds. To the authors’ knowledge, this type of fracture has not been described previously in cats. This case report describes a five-year-old Domestic Shorthair cat referred to the Centro Veterinario Luni Mare because of lameness, swelling and signs of pain in the right hindlimb caused by trauma. Clinical examination and diagnostic imaging revealed a right central tarsal bone fracture. Open reduction and internal fixation with a 2.0 mm position screw and two 0.8 mm Kirschner wires were carried out. The last follow-up examination three years postoperatively found the cat in good health with normal range of motion and function, and no signs of lameness in the right hindlimb. F. Cinti (1), G. Pisani (1), C. Penazzi (2), U. Carusi (1), L. Vezzoni (3), A. Vezzoni (3) 25509 2016-02-05 10:59:45 Evaluation of a Veress needle for the fluid egress system of stifle arthroscopy in toy dog breeds http://vcot.schattauer.de/t3page/1214.html?manuscript=25508 Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of a Veress needle as a fluid egress system for stifle arthroscopy in toy dog breeds. Methods: Cadaveric canine stifle joints (n = 32) were prepared to induce an artificial intra-articular haemorrhagic effect, followed by stifle arthroscopy. The stifles were randomly assigned to one of three groups, and a fluid egress portal was established using a Veress needle (VN), a standard egress cannula (SE), or an intravenous catheter stylet (CS). Time to establish the egress portal, arthroscopic visibility, and egress portal performance were evaluated during the arthroscopy. After the arthroscopic examinations, iatrogenic cartilage lesions were identified and analysed using the percentage area of cartilage damage (%ACD). Results: The overall arthroscopic visibility and egress portal performance were not significantly different among the groups. The egress portal establishment was faster for the VN (33 sec) and the CS (34 sec) groups than for the SE (43 sec) group (p = 0.001). On gross joint examination, no iatrogenic laceration was found in the VN group, whereas four out of 10 of the SE and two out of 10 of the CS specimens had linear cartilage excoriation on the stifle joints. The %ACD score of the VN group was lower than those of the SE group (p = 0.009) and the CS group (p = 0.001). Clinical significance: The Veress needle method used in this study was useful to establish a fluid egress system and limit iatrogenic cartilage excoriations. This technique could become the method of choice for stifle arthroscopy, especially in smaller dogs.... J.-G. Cha (1), H. B. Lee (2), H.-Y. Cheong (1), S.-Y. Heo (1), G. R. Ragetly (3) 25508 2016-02-05 10:58:42 Short and long-term outcome following surgical stabilization of tarsocrural instability in dogs http://vcot.schattauer.de/t3page/1214.html?manuscript=25507 Objectives: To evaluate the outcome and complications following surgical stabilization of canine tarsocrural luxations. Methods: Medical records of dogs which were surgically treated for tarsocrural joint instability between February 2007 and June 2014 were reviewed. Surgical technique, complications and long-term outcome (via questionnaire and Canine Brief Pain Inventory) were assessed. Results: Twenty-four dogs (26 joints) were included. All injuries were traumatic. All joints had associated fractures; malleolar in 21/26 limbs (13/26 medial). Eight joints had internal fracture fixation and transarticular external skeletal fixator, six had external fixator alone, four had prosthetic ligaments with external fixator, and four had prosthetic ligaments with external coaptation. Two joints had pantarsal arthrodesis and two primary ligament repair. Complications occurred in 24/26 limbs giving 45 distinct complications; 16 were minor, 29 major, and 31 complications were external fixator associated. Prosthetic ligaments were significantly associated with major complications (p = 0.017); five out of eight required subsequent removal between 105–1006 days. Cost was significantly associated with major complications (p = 0.017) and soft tissue wounds (p = 0.03). Long-term lameness was seen in nine of 14 dogs. There was no association between pain severity (p = 0.3) and pain interference scores (p = 0.198) when comparing stabilization methods. Clinical significance: Complications are common; however many are external fixator related. Prosthetic ligaments are significantly associated with major complications. Regardless of technique, a degree of ongoing lameness is likely.... L. J. Beever (1), E. R. Kulendra (1), R. L. Meeson (1) 25507 2016-02-05 10:57:47