Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology (VCOT) Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology (VCOT) vcot de-de http://www.schattauer.de/rss.html Mon, 25 Jul 16 22:06:10 +0200 http://www.schattauer.de/fileadmin/assets/zeitschriften/vcot/rss_vcot.jpg Ahead of print: Biomechanical comparison of 3.0 mm headless compression screw and 3.5 mm cortical... http://vcot.schattauer.de/t3page/1214.html?manuscript=26094 Objective: To compare the biomechanical properties of simulated humeral condylar fractures reduced with one of two screw fixation methods: 3.0 mm headless compression screw (HCS) or 3.5 mm cortical bone screw (CBS) placed in lag fashion. Methods: Bilateral humeri were collected from nine canine cadavers. Standardized osteotomies were stabilized with 3.0 mm HCS in one limb and 3.5 mm CBS in the contralateral limb. Condylar fragments were loaded to walk, trot, and failure loads while measuring construct properties and condylar fragment motion. Results: The 3.5 mm CBS-stabilized constructs were 36% stiffer than 3.0 mm HCS-stabilized constructs, but differences were not apparent in quality of fracture reduction nor in yield loads, which exceeded expected physiological loads during rehabilitation. Small residual fragment displacements were not different between CBS and HCS screws. Small fragment rotation was not significantly different between screws, but was weakly correlated with moment arm length (R² = 0.25). Clinical significance: A CBS screw placed in lag fashion provides stiffer fixation than an HCS screw, although both screws provide similar anatomical reduction and yield strength to condylar fracture fixation in adult canine humeri.... M. N. Gonsalves (1), D. A. Jankovits (1), M. L. Huber (1), A. M. Strom (1), T. C. Garcia (2), S. M. Stover (2) 26094 2016-07-21 11:30:40 Ahead of print: Complex angular and torsional deformities (distal femoral malunions) http://vcot.schattauer.de/t3page/1214.html?manuscript=26093 Objective: To describe the surgical technique of complex distal femoral deformity correction with the aid of stereolithography apparatus (SLA) biomodels, stabilized with locking plate fixation. Methods: Full-size replica epoxy bone biomodels of the affected femurs (4 dogs/5 limbs) were used as templates for surgical planning. A rehearsal procedure was performed on the biomodels aided by a guide wire technique and stabilized with locking plate fixation. Surgery performed in all dogs was guided by the rehearsal procedure. All pre-contoured implants were subsequently used in the definitive surgical procedure with minimal modification. Results: All dogs had markedly improved, with near normal functional outcomes; all but one had a mild persistent lameness at the final in-hospital follow-up examination (mean: 54.4 weeks; range: 24–113 weeks after surgery). All femurs healed without complications (mean: 34 weeks, median: 12 weeks; range: 8–12 weeks for closing osteotomies, and 26–113 weeks for opening wedge osteotomies). Long-term follow-up examination (mean: 28.6 months; range: 5–42 months) revealed all but one owner to be highly satisfied with the outcome. Complications were observed in two dogs: prolonged tibiotarsal joint decreased flexion that resolved with physical therapy. In one of these dogs, iatrogenic transection of the long digital extensor tendon was repaired, and the other had a peroneal nerve neurapraxia. Clinical significance: Stereolithography apparatus biomodels and rehearsal surgery simplified the definitive surgical corrections of complex femoral malunions and resulted in good functional outcomes.... M. D. DeTora (1), R. J. Boudrieau (1) 26093 2016-07-21 11:29:56 Ahead of print: Ankylosis and pseudoankylosis of the temporomandibular joint in 10 dogs (1993–2015) http://vcot.schattauer.de/t3page/1214.html?manuscript=26092 Objective: To describe the clinical features and results of treatment of true ankylosis and pseudoankylosis of the temporomandibular joint in dogs. Methods: This study was a retrospective case series. Ten client-owned dogs that were presented for inability to open the mouth or a severely decreased range of motion of the temporomandibular joint were included. Information on the surgical procedures performed and the perioperative complications were documented. Three-dimensional printing of the skull was performed in four dogs. Results: Two dogs were diagnosed with temporomandibular joint ankylosis and seven dogs with pseudoankylosis. One dog had evidence of combined temporomandibular joint ankylosis and pseudoankylosis. Of the seven dogs with pseudoankylosis, six had an osseous fusion involving the zygomatic arch and mandible. Surgical treatment was performed in nine dogs and a revision surgery was needed in one dog. Follow-up ranged from five months to eight years (mean: 48.6 months). Eight out of nine dogs that were treated surgically regained the ability to open their mouth, but six dogs never regained a fully normal temporomandibular joint range of motion. Clinical significance: Temporomandibular joint ankylosis and pseudoankylosis are uncommon in the dog. Surgical treatment for temporomandibular joint ankylosis or pseudoankylosis in dogs is a successful option and carries a prognosis dependent on patient-specific abnormalities. Computed tomography complemented with three-dimensional printing is valuable for understanding the extent of abnormalities and for preoperative planning.... P. C. Strøm (1), B. Arzi (2), D. Cissell (2), F. J. M. Verstraete (2) 26092 2016-07-21 11:29:05 Ahead of print: Complications of porous-coated press-fit cementless total hip replacement in dogs http://vcot.schattauer.de/t3page/1214.html?manuscript=26091 Objective: To report postoperative complications using a commercially available porous-coated press-fit cementless total hip replacement (THR) system in dogs. Methods: Medical records were reviewed for client-owned dogs with hip pathologies requiring THR. A minimum of six-week postoperative orthopaedic examination and orthogonal pelvic radiographs were used to assess outcome and complications in the perioperative period. Referring veterinarian medical records, phone interviews with clients, or both were used to assess long-term functional outcome and complications. Results: Bilateral THR was performed in 36 dogs, and unilateral in 147 dogs, making a total of 219 THR procedures in 183 dogs. A total complication rate of 31.1% (68/219) was observed. A catastrophic complication was observed in 8.2% (n = 18), a major complication in 9.6% (n = 21), and a minor complication in 13.2% (n = 29) of procedures. The most common complications were intra-operative femoral fissure (n = 46), diaphyseal femoral fracture (n = 15), and coxofemoral luxation (n = 9). Full return to function was achieved in 88.1% of procedures with a median follow-up period of 42 months. Clinical significance: Porous-coated press-fit cementless collarless total hip replacements have a high complication rate. The majority of complications occur intra-operatively or perioperatively, with few complications occurring beyond 12 weeks postoperatively. Both fissure fractures and diaphyseal femoral fractures carry a favourable prognosis with immediate cerclage wiring and plate fixation, respectively.... S. W. Kidd (1), C. A. Preston (1), G. E. Moore (2) 26091 2016-07-21 11:27:41 Ahead of print: Morphometric assessment of hip dysplasia in a cat treated by juvenile pubic... http://vcot.schattauer.de/t3page/1214.html?manuscript=26090 Objective: To quantitatively evaluate the change of the coxofemoral joints using computed tomography and distraction index in a cat with hip dysplasia treated by juvenile pubic symphysiodesis. Study Design: Case report. Animal: Eighteen-week-old female entire Maine Coon cat. Results: Juvenile pubic symphysiodesis resulted in changes in the distraction index, acetabular angle, dorsal acetabular rim angle, dorsal acetabular sector angle, and clinical improvement at the six month follow-up. No intra-operative or postoperative complications were recorded. Conclusions: Juvenile pubic symphysiodesis performed at 18 weeks of age resulted in improvement in hip joint conformation and hip laxity in a dysplastic cat. Clinical relevance: Juvenile pubic symphysiodesis may be a promising treatment for feline hip dysplasia and is a safe and technically simple procedure to perform. Further investigations are warranted. A. Lai (1), J. Culvenor (1), C. Bailey (1) 26090 2016-07-21 11:26:56 Ahead of print: Evaluation of surface blood flow in intact and ruptured canine cruciate ligaments... http://vcot.schattauer.de/t3page/1214.html?manuscript=26089 Objective: To evaluate the usefulness of laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) to measure surface blood flow in canine cruciate ligaments, compare measurements in different sites of intact and partially ruptured canine cranial cruciate ligaments (CrCL) and intact caudal cruciate ligaments (CaCL), and investigate any association between surface blood flow in partially ruptured CrCL and synovitis or duration of clinical signs. Study design: Case-controlled clinical study. Animals: Sixteen dogs with partially ruptured CrCL and five dogs with intact CrCL. Methods: Blood cell flux (BCF) readings during three measurement cycles using LDF at two sites in each ligament (mid-substance and the distal portion of the CrCL, and mid-substance and the proximal portion of the CaCL) were recorded. Synovial changes were graded grossly and histologically using the Osteoarthritis Research Society International histopathology scoring system. Results: The within-run coefficients of variation (CV) for a single BCF measurement cycle were 12.2% and 12.7% in the ruptured and intact CrCL groups, respectively. The between-run CV for three measurement cycles was 20.8% and 14.8%, respectively. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC, absolute agreement) was 0.66 for a single measurement cycle and 0.86 for the average of three cycles. No difference in average BCF readings was found between any two sites in either group, but BCF readings in both CrCL sites were significantly higher in the ruptured CrCL group than the intact CrCL group. No associations between BCF and synovial grades or duration of lameness were identified. Conclusions: Laser Doppler flowmetry can be used to assess surface blood flow in intact and partially ruptured canine cruciate ligaments with acceptable precision. Using this method, surface blood flow appears greater in partially ruptured canine CrCL than intact CrCL. Further studies are required to determine if this is a sequela of trauma or synovitis.... J. Testuz (1), J. Howard (1), A. Pozzi (2), U. Rytz (1), C. Krudewig (3), D. Spreng (1), S. Forterre (1) 26089 2016-07-21 11:25:36 Integrity of Science Publishing under Fire http://vcot.schattauer.de/t3page/1214.html?manuscript=26073 K. A. Johnson 26073 2016-07-19 09:56:11 Effects of two occlusive, hydrocolloid dressings on healing of full-thickness skin wounds in cats http://vcot.schattauer.de/t3page/1214.html?manuscript=25996 Objectives: To determine the effects of two occlusive, hydrocolloid dressings on second intention wound healing in cats. Methods: Three 2×2 cm full-thickness skin wounds were created on each side of the trunk of 10 cats. Two bilateral wounds were bandaged using different hydrocolloid dressings, namely Hydrocoll and DuoDerm while a semi-occlusive pad (Melolin) was applied to the third bilateral wound (control group). Wound planimetry, subjective evaluation of wound healing, and qualitative bacterial cultures were performed on the right-sided wounds, whereas left-sided wounds were subjected to histological examination. Results: Subjective evaluation revealed accelerated (p V. Tsioli (1), P. G. Gouletsou (2), A. D. Galatos (1), D. Psalla (3), A. Lymperis (1), L. G. Papazoglou (4), M. Karayannopoulou (4) 25996 2016-06-21 09:21:52 Evaluation of pain http://vcot.schattauer.de/t3page/1214.html?manuscript=25995 P. R. Manning (1) 25995 2016-06-21 09:20:40 Hemiepiphysiodesis for the correction of proximal tibial valgus in growing dogs http://vcot.schattauer.de/t3page/1214.html?manuscript=25893 Objectives: To describe the use of hemiepiphysiodesis for the treatment of proximal tibial deformities in immature dogs and evaluate the effect on the mechanical medial proximal tibial angle (mMPTA). Methods: Skeletally immature dogs with proximal tibial deformities from three institutions treated with hemiepiphysiodesis between March 2006 and January 2015 were included. All dogs were required to have an mMPTA outside the previously published reference range (93.3 ± 1.78°) preoperatively. Dogs were required to have radiographs or computed tomography performed preoperatively and at least eight weeks postoperatively. Results: A total of 19 dogs (n = 31 limbs) fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The mean mMPTA was 102.5° ± 5.3° preoperatively and 92.4° ± 7.2° at the final re-evaluation. The mean difference in mMPTA was -10 ± 5.1° (range, -1 to -19°; p A. M. Olsen (1), L. Vezzoni (2), A. Ferretti (3), R. H. Palmer (1), A. Vezzoni (2), F. Duerr (1) 25893 2016-06-01 12:42:16 The effect of lysophosphatidic acid using a hydrogel or collagen sponge carrier on bone healing in... http://vcot.schattauer.de/t3page/1214.html?manuscript=25892 Objectives: The purposes of this study were to determine: 1) the efficacy of polycaprolactone-g-polyethylene glycol (PCL-g-PEG) and polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA-g-PEG) hydrogels and an absorbable collagen sponge (ACS) as carriers for lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), 2) the effect of LPA on bone healing in dogs, and 3) the ideal dose of LPA to maximally stimulate bone healing. Methods: Bilateral ulnar ostectomies were performed on purpose bred dogs. Control defects were filled with a PCL-g-PEG or PLGA-g-PEG hydrogel, or a saline soaked ACS. Contralateral defects were filled with a PCL-g-PEG or PLGA-g-PEG hydrogel, or an ACS with each carrying differing concentrations of an LPA solution. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was performed. Total bone area (TBA), mineral density (BMD), and mineral content (BMC) were determined at each time point. Relationships between the effect of treatment over time on TBA, BMC and BMD were determined. Results: Phase 1 - There was no significant difference in DXA-based TBA (p = 0.09), BMC (p = 0.33), or BMD (p = 0.74) over time between LPA treatments, or between the LPA treated and control groups TBA (p = 0.95), BMC (p = 0.99), or BMD (p = 0.46). Phase 2 - There was no significant difference over time between LPA treatments in DXA-based TBA (p = 0.33), BMC (p = 0.45), or BMD (p = 0.43), or between the LPA treated and control groups TBA (p = 0.94), BMC (p = 0.38), or BMD (p = 0.17). Phase 3 - There was no significant difference over time between LPA treatments in DXA-based TBA (p = 0.78), BMC (p = 0.88), or BMD (p = 0.35), or between the LPA treated and control groups TBA (p = 0.07), BMC (p = 0.85), or BMD (p = 0.06). There was a significant increase in TBA (p... K. R. Might (1, 2), S. A. Martinez (1), N. Karin (3), G. Lin (4), B. Tarasevich (5), R. R. Pool (6) 25892 2016-06-01 12:06:20 Establishment of normal anatomical radial angles in cats http://vcot.schattauer.de/t3page/1214.html?manuscript=25891 Objectives: 1) To describe a radiographic method for determination of joint orientation lines and anatomical joint angles in orthogonal planes of feline radii; 2) to establish a range of normal radial joint orientation angles and anatomical axes in a feline population; and 3) to assess the repeatability and reliability of this methodology. Methods: The radial anatomical axis, elbow and carpal joint reference lines, and the intersecting angles of each: anatomical medial proximal (aMPRA) and lateral distal radial angles (aLDRA), anatomical caudal proximal (aCdPRA) and distal radial angles (aCdDRA), and sagittal procurvatum (SP) were determined on the orthogonal radiographs of 14 feline limbs. Intra- and inter-observer agreement was determined based on repeated independent readings by two observers using Bland-Altman plots. Results: The mean ± standard deviation (SD) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for the feline radii were: aMPRA 70.97 ± 3.38° (70.07 – 71.88°), aLDRA 91.72 ± 3.26° (90.84 – 92.59°), aCdPRA 100.5 ± 3.14° (99.62 – 101.3º), aCdDRA 79.95 ± 3.77° (78.94 – 80.96°) and SP 11.07 ± 1.87° (10.57 – 11.58°). The highest mean bias found for both observers was -1.6 to -1.8° for the angle aCdDRA. Sagittal procurvatum had the lowest mean bias for intra- and inter-observer. Clinical significance: The results obtained showed that the methodology used in our study was repeatable and reliable. The values established for the normal radial anatomical angles are relevant for future use as a reference for surgical treatment of angular deformities, malunions, non-unions, comminuted fractures, and future orthopaedic research.... B. De Lima Dantas (1, 2), A. Durand (1), T. Parkin (1), C. Broome (1) 25891 2016-06-01 12:01:54 Elevated synovial fluid concentration of adenosine triphosphate in dogs with osteoarthritis or... http://vcot.schattauer.de/t3page/1214.html?manuscript=25890 Adenosine triphosphate has been shown to stimulate nociceptive nerve terminals in joints. Elevated synovial fluid adenosine triphosphate concentrations as well as a correlation between synovial fluid adenosine triphosphate concentrations and osteoarthritic knee pain has been demonstrated in humans, but not yet in dogs. This study documented elevated synovial fluid adenosine triphosphate concentrations in the stifles of dogs with secondary osteoarthritis and urate-induced synovitis, as compared to normal stifles. B. T. Torres (1), D. A. Jimenez (2), S. C. Budsberg (3) 25890 2016-06-01 11:58:07 Effect of single dose radiation therapy on weight-bearing lameness in dogs with elbow osteoarthritis http://vcot.schattauer.de/t3page/1214.html?manuscript=25889 Objectives: To determine if a single low dose of radiation therapy in dogs with osteoarthritis of the elbow joint was associated with a detectable improvement in their lameness and pain as documented by force platform gait analysis. Methods: In this cohort longitudinal observational study, five Labrador Retrievers with lameness due to elbow osteoarthritis that was unresponsive to medical treatment were removed from all non-steroidal anti-inflammatory and analgesic medications. A single treatment of radiation therapy delivering 10 Gray was performed on the affected elbow joint(s). Force platform gait analysis was used to assess the ground reaction forces of a limb affected with elbow osteoarthritis both before and after radiation therapy. Results: Significant differences occurred in the weight-bearing on an affected limb with elbow osteoarthritis after radiation therapy at weeks six and 14. Change due to treatment was particularly apparent in dogs with unilateral elbow osteoarthritis. Clinical significance: Administering a single low dose of radiation therapy may have a short-term benefit in dogs with elbow osteoarthritis, which is similar to the evidence supporting the use of radiation therapy in horses with orthopaedic disease.... A. S. Kapatkin (1), B. Nordquist (2), T. C. Garcia (3), M. A. Griffin (4), A. Theon (1), S. Kim (5), K. Hayashi (6) 25889 2016-06-01 11:56:38 Comparison of open reduction versus minimally invasive surgical approaches on screw position in... http://vcot.schattauer.de/t3page/1214.html?manuscript=25846 Objective: To compare accuracy and consistency of sacral screw placement in canine pelves treated for sacroiliac luxation with open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) or minimally invasive osteosynthesis (MIO) techniques. Methods: Unilateral sacroiliac luxations created experimentally in canine cadavers were stabilized with an iliosacral lag screw applied via ORIF or MIO techniques (n = 10/group). Dorsoventral and craniocaudal screw angles were measured using computed tomography multiplanar reconstructions in transverse and dorsal planes, respectively. Ratios between pilot hole length and sacral width (PL/SW-R) were obtained. Data between groups were compared statistically (p L. M. Déjardin (1), D. M. Marturello (1), L. P. Guiot (2), R. P. Guillou (2), C. E. DeCamp (1) 25846 2016-05-18 14:19:20 Metallosis with pseudotumour formation: Long-term complication following cementless total hip... http://vcot.schattauer.de/t3page/1214.html?manuscript=25845 Case description: A 10-year-old female Belgian Teruven dog was presented to our clinic for total hip revision following a diagnosis of implant (cup) failure with metallosis and abdominal pseudotumour formation. The patient had a cementless metal-on-polyethylene total hip replacement performed nine years prior to presentation. Clinical findings: The clinical findings, including pseudotumour formation locally and at sites distant from the implant and pain associated with the joint replacement, were similar to those described in human patients with this condition. Histopathological, surgical, and radiographic findings additionally supported the diagnosis of metallosis and pseudotumour formation. Treatment and outcome: Distant site pseudotumours were surgically removed and the total hip replacement was explanted due to poor bone quality. The patient recovered uneventfully and has since resumed normal activity. Conclusion: In veterinary patients with metal-on-polyethylene total hip implants, cup failure leading to metallosis and pseudotumour formation should be considered as a potential cause of ipsilateral hindlimb lameness, intra-pelvic abdominal tumours, or a combination of both. These clinical findings may occur years after total hip replacement surgery.... N. J. Volstad (1), S. L. Schaefer (1), L. A. Snyder (2), J. B. Meinen (3), S. J. Sample (1) 25845 2016-05-18 14:18:36 Digging for known genetic mutations underlying inherited bone and cartilage characteristics and... http://vcot.schattauer.de/t3page/1214.html?manuscript=25844 Gene mapping projects for many traits in both dogs and cats have yielded new knowledge. Both researchers and the public alike have been fascinated by the inheritance of breed characteristic phenotypes and sporadic disorders. It has been proposed that selective breeding practices have on occasion generated alterations in structure that might be harmful. In this review, simply inherited disorders and characteristics affecting bone and cartilage for which a putative mutation is known are collected. A better understanding of the known inherited basis of skeletal conditions and disorders will assist veterinarians to improve their diagnoses and increase their effectiveness on advising clients on the prevention, management, prognosis and possible treatment of the conditions. B. Haase (1), H. Mazrier (1), C. M. Wade (1) 25844 2016-05-18 14:17:16 Veterinary Orthopedic Society 43rd Annual Conference Abstracts http://vcot.schattauer.de/t3page/1214.html?manuscript=25843 25843 2016-05-18 13:21:55 Evolution of Locked Nailing http://vcot.schattauer.de/t3page/1214.html?manuscript=25842 K. A. Johnson 25842 2016-05-18 12:56:52 Validity and repeatability of goniometry in normal horses http://vcot.schattauer.de/t3page/1214.html?manuscript=25810 Purpose: To assess validity and inter- and intra-tester reliability of equine goniometry and to establish values for carpal, metacarpophalangeal, tarsal, and metatarsophalangeal flexion and extension in horses. Subjects: Seventeen healthy equine subjects of varied breeds were used. Methods: Three investigators blindly and independently measured in triplicate the extension and flexion of carpal, metacarpophalangeal, tarsal, and metatarsophalangeal joints of 17 horses after sedation. Radiographs of these joints in flexion and extension were acquired while under sedation. Goniometric and radiographic measurements were compared statistically and were correlated. A Bland-Altman plot was constructed. Inter- and intra-tester repeatability of goniometry were evaluated by calculating intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC). Mean flexion and extension of carpal, metacarpophalangeal, tarsal, and metatarsophalangeal joints were calculated. Results: Goniometric and radiographic measurements did not differ statistically and were significantly correlated (correlation coefficients ranged from 0.59 - 0.89). The mean difference between goniometric and radiographic measurements was 0.4°. Triplicate measurements collected by the three raters did not differ significantly within raters (ICC ranging from 0.950 - 0.995) and between raters (ICC ranging from 0.942 - 0.989). Conclusion: Goniometry is a valid and repeatable tool for evaluation of the range of motion of carpal, metacarpophalangeal, tarsal, and metatarsophalangeal joints in standing, sedated healthy horses.... H. S. Adair, III (1), D. J. Marcellin-Little (2), D. Levine (3) 25810 2016-04-28 14:39:27 Short-term comparison of tibial tuberosity advancement and tibial plateau levelling osteotomy in... http://vcot.schattauer.de/t3page/1214.html?manuscript=25809 Objectives: This study set out to compare the outcomes of tibial tuberosity advancement (TTA) and tibial plateau levelling osteotomy (TPLO) procedures in the treatment of dogs affected with unilateral cranial cruciate ligament disease (CCLD) based on subjective parameters and objective pressure platform analysis (baropodometry). Methods: Twenty-seven adult dogs weighing over 20 kg that were presented with unilateral CCLD and were treated by the TTA (12 dogs) or TPLO (15 dogs) surgical procedure. Patient allocation to either group was based on tibial plateau angle (TPA), according to clinical guidelines (indication for TTA for dogs was a TPA up to 25°, and indication for TPLO was any TPA). Pressure platform analysis was performed prior to surgery and at four different postoperative time points (14, 30, 60 and 90 days). Results: Limb function significantly improved following TTA and TPLO, with no significant differences between groups. Conclusion: The TTA and TPLO surgical procedures were considered to be equally effective in promoting weight bearing capacity recovery in dogs affected with unilateral CCLD under the conditions of this trial.... M. P. Ferreira (1), C. R. A. Ferrigno (2), A. N. A. de Souza (2), D. F. I. Caquias (3), A. V. de Figueiredo (1) 25809 2016-04-28 14:36:41 Musculoskeletal modelling in dogs: challenges and future perspectives http://vcot.schattauer.de/t3page/1214.html?manuscript=25786 Musculoskeletal models have proven to be a valuable tool in human orthopaedics research. Recently, veterinary research started taking an interest in the computer modelling approach to understand the forces acting upon the canine musculoskeletal system. While many of the methods employed in human musculoskeletal models can applied to canine musculoskeletal models, not all techniques are applicable. This review summarizes the important parameters necessary for modelling, as well as the techniques employed in human musculoskeletal models and the limitations in transferring techniques to canine modelling research. The major challenges in future canine modelling research are likely to centre around devising alternative techniques for obtaining maximal voluntary contractions, as well as finding scaling factors to adapt a generalized canine musculoskeletal model to represent specific breeds and subjects. B. Dries (1), I. Jonkers (2), W. Dingemanse (1), B. Vanwanseele (2), J. Vander Sloten (3), H. van Bree (1), I. Gielen (1) 25786 2016-04-22 09:35:18 Traumatic fracture of the medial coronoid process in 24 dogs http://vcot.schattauer.de/t3page/1214.html?manuscript=25785 Objective: To describe traumatic fracture of the medial coronoid process in dogs as a clinically distinct disease unrelated to congenital elbow dysplasia. Methods: Clinical records of dogs with acute, traumatic, unilateral lameness attributable to medial coronoid process disease were reviewed retrospectively. Clinical interpretation included findings on physical examination, orthopaedic examination, and subjective gait analysis. Radiographs of the affected and contralateral elbows were obtained and reviewed for pathology. Arthroscopy of the elbow joints was performed by one of three surgeons and findings were compared to preoperative diagnostics. Postoperative follow-up was continued for 16 weeks. Results: Twenty-four dogs were included in this study. All dogs in this study were free of radiographic evidence of medial coronoid pathology. All dogs were diagnosed with a single, large, displaced or non-displaced fracture of the medial coronoid process, with no other joint pathology. Dogs generally had an excellent short-term outcome following arthroscopic treatment of the fractured medial coronoid process. Clinical significance: Traumatic fracture of the medial coronoid process should be considered a clinical disease distinct from dysplasia-related fragmentation and should be considered as a differential diagnosis in dogs that are presented with the complaint of acute unilateral elbow discomfort or lameness, especially after concussive activities involving the forelimb. ... D. K. Tan (1), S. O. Canapp Jr. (1), C. S. Leasure (1), D. L. Dycus (1), E. O'Donnell (1) 25785 2016-04-22 09:33:40 Bilateral tibial agenesis and syndactyly in a cat http://vcot.schattauer.de/t3page/1214.html?manuscript=25784 Case description: A three-year-old cat was referred to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, University of Naples, Italy. The cat had severe pelvic limb deformity, and abnormal development of all four paws. Clinical findings: Radiographs revealed bilateral tibial agenesis, syndactyly, and digital hypoplasia. Treatment and outcome: No treatment was instituted because of the severity of the injury, the adaptation of the cat to the abnormal condition, and the owner's refusal to permit any treatment. Clinical relevance: Congenital limb deformities are rarely reported in the cat and tibial agenesis is considered a very rare disease. This congenital anomaly is well documented and classified in man, and it has been associated with other abnormalities in more complex syndromes. This paper reports clinical and radiographic findings in a cat affected by bilateral complete tibial agenesis associated with other congenital anomalies. F. Di Dona (1), C. Murino (1), G. Della Valle (1), G. Fatone (1) 25784 2016-04-22 09:32:34 Evaluation of a silver-impregnated coating to inhibit colonization of orthopaedic implants by... http://vcot.schattauer.de/t3page/1214.html?manuscript=25783 Objectives: To evaluate the in vitro antibacterial activity of a silver-impregnated coating against a biofilm-forming strain of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP). Methods: A clinical MRSP isolate sourced from a failed canine knee implant was evaluated for biofilm production and used in the present study. Using a standard test method and a clinically approved titanium substrate, the antimicrobial activity of a novel silver plasma coating was determined at two times: five minutes after inoculation of the specimens (T0) and after 24 hours of incubation (T24). Scanning electron microscopy was used to evaluate the biofilm formation on specimens. Results: The tested clinical MRSP isolate was classified as a strong biofilm producer. The silver coating significantly reduced the MRSP growth more than four log steps compared to the non-coated specimens and showed more than 99.98% reduction in the number of colony forming units after 24 hours. Scanning electron microscopy images revealed that silver-coated surfaces did not manifest detectable biofilm, while biofilm formation was readily observed on the control specimens. Clinical significance: The silver coating exhibited excellent activity against the multidrug resistant biofilm-forming MRSP isolate. The next stage of this work will involve testing in an animal model of orthopaedic infection. Positive results from animal studies would support the introduction of the silver plasma coating as a new strategy for preventing implant contamination, biofilm formation, and surgical infection in dogs undergoing orthopaedic surgery.... M. A. Azab (1, 2), M. J. Allen (1, 3), J. B. Daniels (1) 25783 2016-04-22 09:31:07